The structure and composition of tetrahedral-coordinated amorphous diamondlike carbon films (a-tC) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of graphite has been studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanometer-scale surface structure has been studied as a function of growth parameters (e.g., laser energy density and film thickness) using contact-mode and tapping-mode AFM. Although the surfaces were found to be generally smooth, they exhibited reproducible structural features on several size scales which correlate with the variation of laser energy and the effects of excited ion etching.
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Mercer, T.W., DiNardo, N.J., Martinez-Miranda, L.J. et al. Surface Structure of Tetrahedral-Coordinated Amorphous Diamond-Like Carbon Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition. MRS Online Proceedings Library 358, 863 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-358-863