Nanosized silica particles dispersed in various solvents were spray dried and the change in size distribution, agglomerate strength, and strength distribution was determined. The effect of solvent surface tension, pH, and particle surface chemistry on strength of agglomerates formed during spray drying was studied for particle sizes between 15 and 500 nm. Alcohol/water mixtures having different surface tension, and water at different pH levels, were employed to separate the effects of capillary pressure and surface hydroxyl condensation reactions. The agglomerate strength was determined using an ultrasonic measurement technique. The particle size was determined using sedimentation. The strength and strength distribution of agglomerates was found to depend on the solvent surface tension, solubility (pH), and primary particle size.
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Maskara, A., Smith, D.M. Factors Affecting Strength of Agglomerates Formed During Spray Drying of Nanophase Powders. MRS Online Proceedings Library 346, 637–642 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-346-637