Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) Ion Source was employed, for the first time, to synthesize metal suicides. Refractory metal suicides NbSi2, TaSi2 WSi, and MoSi2were successfully formed by implanting respective metal ions into Si(111) wafers. It was found that the high current density metal ion implantation not only provided the metal components but also caused a simultaneous annealing for various metal-suicide phases to grow. When the implantation was conducted at 40 kV, the Nb ion current density was up to 76 µA/cm at a dose of 4 × 1017 /cm2, and the Ta, W and Mo ion current densities were up to 65 μA/cm2 at a dose of 5 × 1017ions/cm2, hexagonal NbSi2, TaSi2, MoSi2 and WSi2 were formed. Post annealing transformed the WSi2 and MoSi2 phases from hexagonal to tetragonal structure, featuring lower resistance than that of the as-implanted ones.
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Liu, B., Zhu, D., Lu, H. et al. Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc Ion Source to Synthesize Refractory Metal Silicides. MRS Online Proceedings Library 320, 191–196 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-320-191