A review has been made of our works on two types of sol-gel methods for obtaining oxide fibers through low temperature process: (1) the alkoxide method and (2) the freezing-of-gel method. In the alkoxide method, metal alkoxides in an alcoholic solution are hydrolyzed and poly-condensed into chain-like polymers, drawn into gel fibers near room temperature and heated to several hundred °C. Various problems encountered in the process are discussed with SiO2-based fibers. In the freezing-of-gel method, a hydrogel is unidirectionally frozen by lowering the gel cylinder into a cold bath. Thawing of unidirectionally grown ice crystals leaves a bundle of hydroxide fibers. Factors affecting the formation of fibers are discussed with titanium and zirconium hydroxide fibers as examples.
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Sakka, S. Formation of Glass and Amorphous Oxide Fibers from Solution. MRS Online Proceedings Library 32, 91 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-32-91