Angular-resolved time-of-flight (ARTOF) studies have been performed on ablation plumes of copper generated by excimer laser fluences just above threshold in vacuum. Positive ions, Rydberg atoms and ground-state neutrals are observed. Relative concentrations, angular intensity distributions and angular- resolved velocity distributions are measured for ground state neutrals and ions.
Ions have the highest kinetic energies (20-80 eV). Their angular distribution is isotropic. Their concentration at the substrate is very low ( ≤ 10-6). Ground state neutrals have lower energies ( ≈ 1 eV). Their intensity and velocity is a strongly decreasing function of the polar angle. Rydberg-atoms have energies in between those of ground-state neutrals and ions. Their angular distribution is also dependent on tile polar angle.
The concentration, kinetic energy and angular distribution of the ionised species arc very well explained by a mechanism of thermal ionization and subsequent space-charge induced repulsion. The velocity distributions and angular intensity distributions of the ground-state neutrals are quantitatively predicted by a model for the flow dynamics of pulsed laser generated gas clouds.
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ARTOF measurements on ionized and neutral copper atoms ablated from polycrystalline copper by near-threshold excimer radiation have been performed. From these data, a quantitative description of the process can be extracted.
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Kools, J.C.S., Dieleman, J. Characterization of the Depositing Flux in Laser Ablation Deposition (LAD).. MRS Online Proceedings Library 236, 405–410 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-236-405