Ion-beam mixing and isothermal annealing techniques were applied to induce phase transformations in Co/Nb and Co/Zr multilayer film stacks. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and x-ray diffraction(XRD) were used to characterize the microstructure of the films. Interfacial morphology and chemistry of the films were examined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry(RBS) and cross-section transmission electron microscopy(XTEM). The formation of amorphous phases was found in both systems by either technique. A comparison of the phase transformation mechanisms induced by ion-beam mixing and isothermal annealing is given. The thermodynamic and kinetic factors controlling the phase formation and stability are discussed. For the isothermal annealing, the final stable configuration is predicted by equilibrium phase diagrams.
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The authors thank Professor G. S. Was and Dr. V. H. Rotberg at University of Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory for ion beam mixing and RBS measurements. They also thank N. J. Panseri for film deposition and J. J. Ptasienski for assistance with the TEM micrographs.
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Lin, J.C., Hoffman, R.A. Phase Transformations in Co/Nb and Co/Zr Multilayer Film Stacks.. MRS Online Proceedings Library 230, 73–78 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-230-73