Germanium Implantation into Silicon: An Alternate Pre-Amorphization/Rapid Thermal Annealing Procedure for Shallow Junction Technology


Germanium implantation into Si was conducted to pre-amorphize. the Si surface layer prior to a shallow/high dose (42 keV, 2 × 10 cm−2) BF2 implant. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of the amorphous layer (without BF2) leaves defect-free material in the implanted region. Only a discrete layer of small (~300Å) dislocation loops due to straggling ion damage was found to be present at a depth corresponding to the amorphous/crystalline interface. RTA of the amorphous layer with the BF2 created a high density of uniformly distributed fine defect clusters (~50A) in the surface region (0–500Å) in addition to the straggling ion damage. Boron and F profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry from the unannealed and rapid thermally annealed samples showed the presence of high concentrations of these impurities in the surface region where the fine defect clusters were observed. A comparison of the RTA behavior of the pre-amorphized surface layers (with or without BF2) produced by Ge and self-implantation is presented.

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The authors would like to thank Witek Maszara, Calvin Carter and Jimmie Wortman of NC State University, Wei Kan Chu of UNC-Chapel Hill and Tim Sands of UC Berkeley for stimulating discussions and help provided during the course of this work. Thanks are also due to Dieter Griffis of NC State University for the SIMS measurements and Pam Johnson for typing the manuscript skillfully. This work was partially supported by the Office of Naval Research.

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Sadana, D.K., Myers, E., Liu, J. et al. Germanium Implantation into Silicon: An Alternate Pre-Amorphization/Rapid Thermal Annealing Procedure for Shallow Junction Technology. MRS Online Proceedings Library 23, 303–308 (1983).

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