Phase Transformations in Titanium Oxide Evaporated Films by Annealing


The process of the phase transformation of evaporated films of TiO0.5 has been demonstrated by in situ annealing using an electron microscope. Single crystals of the δ-phase, whose structure is identified with Andersson’s hexagonal model, precipitate during annealing. Crystal structure images in cooperation with the calculated images reveal that the inner parts of the δ-phase crystal have various thickness. The transition structures I and II having ordered vacancies of titanium and oxygen respectively also appear on annealing. The difference in the distortion of their lattices from the parent rock-salt type lattice suggests that the effective atomic volume of titanium is larger than that of oxygen in the crystal of the transition structure. The observed transformations, α-phase → δ; phase → transition structure, are explained by consideration of the structural relationships among these phases.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    R. Roy and W.B. White, J. cryst. Growth 13/14, 78 (1972).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    B. Holmberg, Acta Chem. Scand. 16, 1245 (1962).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    S. Andersson, B. Collén, U. Kuylenstierna and A. Magnéli, Acta Chem. Scand. 11, 1641 (1957).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    D. Watanabe, J.R. Castles, A. Jostsons and A.S. Malin, Acta Crystallogr. 23, 307 (1967).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    E. Hilty, Naturwissenschaften 55, 130 (1968).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    E.S. Bumps, H.D. Kesseler and M. Hansen, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 45, 1008 (1953).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    T.H. Schofield and A.E. Bacon, J. Inst. Met. 84, 47 (1955–56).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    S. Andersson, Acta Chem. Scand. 13, 415 (1959).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Y. Yamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 29 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Y. Yamada and K. Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, 36 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    K. Yoshida, Y. Yamada, H. Ota, L.A. Bursill and G.J. Wood, Phil. Mag. A 44, 73 (1981).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Y. Yamada, Jpn, J. Appl. Phys. 17, 617 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Y. Yamada.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yamada, Y., Yoshida, K., Ota, H. et al. Phase Transformations in Titanium Oxide Evaporated Films by Annealing. MRS Online Proceedings Library 21, 155–160 (1983).

Download citation