Ion implantation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is studied using various characterization techniques, including Raman spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Particular attention is given to the annealing of the implantation-induced lattice damage using both hot substrate implantation (200 < T1 < 1000°C) and post-implantation annealing. The Raman spectra provide detailed information on the implantation-induced structural disorder by analysis of the disorder-induced and Raman-allowed features in the first- and second-order spectra. SIMS measurements show that the implanted profile is essentially the same for hot substrate and room temperature implantation for the case of HOPG. It is shown that implantation at elevated temperatures prevents amorphization more effectively than implantation at room temperature and subsequent annealing at the same elevated temperature. The annealing results show that fundamentally different defects are created during room temperature and hot substrate implantation.
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Elman, B.S., Hom, M., Maby, E.W. et al. Ion-Implantation Studies of Graphite. MRS Online Proceedings Library 20, 341 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-20-341