The equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are used to investigate how temperature gradients may be utilized to enhance performance of solid state batteries. One result is that the efficiency of a battery with doped cerium oxide as the electrolyte may be increased by imposition of a temperature gradient. This may lead to greater use of electrolytes of appreciable electronic conductivity. Moreover, temperature gradients may be used to increase mobile ion diffusivity in intercalation electrodes during battery discharge and recharge.
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Borey, B.K., Horne, F.H. Temperature Gradient Enhancement of Solid State Battery Performance. MRS Online Proceedings Library 20, 253 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-20-253