Point Defects, Diffusion Mechanisms, and the Shrinkage and Growth of Extended Defects in Silicon

Abstract

The paper introduces the basic point-defect models proposed for silicon, which involve either vacancies or self-interstitials only, or both types of point defects simultaneously under thermal-equilibrium conditions. The growth and shrinkage kinetics of oxidation-induced stacking faults as well as oxidation-enhanced or -retarded diffusion phenomena are discussed within the frame work of these models. Whereas no unambiguous conclusions on the dominant diffusion mechanism can be drawn from the available oxidation-related experiments, recent investigations on so-called anomalous diffusion phenomena (e.g., the ‘emitter-push effect’) and on the diffusion of gold in silicon demonstrate Si self-interstitials to be the point defects governing self- and impurity diffusion. The possibility of a coexistence of vacancies and self-interstitials in thermal equilibrium is discussed in this context. The paper concludes with speculations on how carbon in conjunction with self-interstitials may influence the nucleation process of oxygen precipitates in silicon.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    A. Seeger and K.P. Chik, Phys. Stat. Sol. 29, 455 (1968).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    S.M. Hu, in: Diffusion in Semiconductors, D. Shaw ed. (Plenum Press, London 1973) p. 217.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    D. Shaw, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 72, 11 (1975).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    A.F.W. Willoughby, Rep. Prog. Phys. 41, 1665 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    R.O. Simmons and R.W. Balluffi, Phys. Rev. 125, 862 (1962).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    L.C. Kimerling and D.V. Lang, in: Lattice Defects in Semiconductors 1974 (Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 23, 1974) p. 589.

  7. 7.

    J.C. Bourgoin and J.W. Corbett, Rad. Effects 36, 157 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    A. Seeger, W. Frank, and U. Gösele, in: Defects and Radiation Effects in Semiconductors 1978 (Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 46, 1979) p. 148.

  9. 9.

    I.R. Sanders and P.S. Dobson, J. Mater. Science 9, 1987 (1974).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    B.J. Masters, Sol. State Comm. 9, 283 (1971).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    P.M. Petroff and A.J.R. de Kock, J. Cryst. Growth 30, 117 (1975).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    R.B. Fair, in: Semiconductor Silicon 1977, H.R. Huff and E. Sirtl eds. (The Electrochem. Soc., Princeton 1977) p. 968.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    J.A. Van Vechten, Phys. Rev. B17, 3197 (1978).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    J.C. Bourgoin and M. Lanoo, Rad. Eff. 46, 157 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    H. Föll and B.O. Kolbesen, Appl. Phys. 8, 117 (1975).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    U. Gösele and H. Strunk, Appl. Phys. 20, 265 (1979).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    S. Prussin, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2850 (1972).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    S.M. Hu, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1567 (1974).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    S.M. Hu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 17 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    E. Sirtl in ref. [12], p. 4.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    A.J.R. de Kock and W.M. van de Wiggert, J. Cryst. Growth 49, 718 (1980).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    M. Yoshida and K. Saito, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 573 (1967).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    R.F. Peart, Phys. Stat. Sol. 15, K119 (1966).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    J.M. Fairfield and B.J. Masters, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3148 (1967).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    A. Seeger, W. Frank, and H. Föll, in: Lattice Defects in Semiconductors 1976 (Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 31, 1977) p. 12.

  26. 26.

    See, e.g.,: M.D. Matthews and S.J. Ashby, Phil. Mag. 27, 1313 (1973).

  27. 27.

    B. Leroy, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 7996 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    W.G. Allen, Sol. State Electr. 16, 709 (1973).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    D.A. Antoniadis, A.G. Gonzalez and R. Dutton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 814 (1978).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    K. Taniguchi, K. Karosawa, and M. Kashiwagi, J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 2243 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    K. H. Nicholas, Solid State Electr. 9, 35 (1966).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    G. Masetti, S. Solmi, and G. Soncini, Solid State Electr. 16, 1419 (1973); Phil. Mag. 33, 613 (1976).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    R. Francis and P.S. Dobson, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 280 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    D.A. Antoniadis, A.M. Lin, and R.W. Dutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 1030 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    R. Conti, G. Corda, R. Mattecci, and G. Ghezzi, J. Materials Science 10, 705 (1975).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    S.P. Murarka and G. Quintana, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 46 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    S.P. Murarka, Phys. Rev. B16, 2849 (1977).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    J.E. Lawrence, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 360 (1969).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    S.M. Hu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 165 (1975).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    H. Shiraki, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 14, 747 (1975).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    H. Shiraki, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 1 (1976).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    T. Hattori, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 945, (1976).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    C.L. Claeys, E.E. Laes, G.J. Declerck, and R.J. Van Overstraeten, in ref. [12], p. 773.

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Y. Hokari and H. Shiraki, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1899 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    T. Hattori and T. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 347 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Y. Nabeta, T. Uno, S. Kubo, and H. Tsukamoto, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1416 (1976).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Y. Hokari, Jap. J. Appl Phys. 18, 873 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    J. Friedel, Dislocations (Pergamon Press, New York 1964) pp. 104–127.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    For references see: C.M. Shelvin and L.J. Delmer, Phil. Mag. A40 685, (1979).

  50. 50.

    A. Seeger and U. Gösele, Phys. Lett. 61A, 423 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    I.R. Sanders and P.S. Dobson, Phil. Mag. 20, 881 (1969).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    H. Hashimoto, H. Shibayama, and H. Ishikawa, Fujitsu Sci. Techn. J., March 73 (1977).

  53. 53.

    Y. Sugita, H. Shimizu, A. Yoshinaka, and T. Aoshima, J. Vac. Sc. Techno. 14, 44 (1977)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    W.K. Wu and J. Washburn, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3747 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    H. Shimizu, A. Yoshinaka, and S. Sugita, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 747 (1978).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    C.L. Claeys, G.J. Declerck, and R.J. Van Overstraeten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 797 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    H.J. Mayer, H. Mehrer, and K. Maier, in ref. [25], p. 186.

  58. 58.

    L. Kalinowski and R. Seguin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 211 (1979); 36, 171 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    J. Hirvonen and A. Anttila, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 703 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    H. Alexander, H. Eppenstein, H. Gottschalk, and S. Wendler, J. Microsc. 118, 1 (1980).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    For references see e.g.,: W. Tiller, J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 621 (1980).

  62. 62.

    A.M. Lin, D.A. Antoniadis, R.W. Dutton, and W.A. Tiller, Electrochem. Soc. Meeting, Boston, 1978 (unpublished).

  63. 63.

    R.B. Fair, to be published.

  64. 64.

    S.P. Murarka, Phys. Rev. B21, 692 (1980).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    S.J. Ingrey and S. Maniv, Electrochem. Soc. Meeting, Boston, 1978 (unpublished).

  66. 66.

    S.M. Hu, these proceedings.

  67. 67.

    H. Shiraki, in ref. [12], p.546.

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    G.J. DeClerck, 9th Europ. Solid State Device Conf., Munic, 1979, to be published.

  69. 69.

    P.B. Hirsch, J. Microscopy 118, 3 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    A.F.W. Willoughby, J. Phys. D 10, 455 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    J.E. Lawrence, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 4106 (1966).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    C.L. Claeys, G.J. DeClerck, and R.J. Van Overstraeten, Rev. Physique Appl. 13, 797 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    R.B. Fair and J.C.C. Tsai, J. Electrochem. Soc. 124, 1107 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    M. Yoshida, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 479 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    C.L. Claeys, G.J. Declerck, and R.J. Van Overstraeten, in: Semiconductor Characterization Techniques, P.A. Barnes and G.A. Rozgonyi eds. (Electrochem. Soc., Princeton 1978) p. 366.

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    A. Armigliato, M. Servidori, S. Solmi, and I. Vecchi, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1806 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    H. Strunk, U. Gösele, and B.O. Kolbesen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 530 (1979).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    J. Weertman, Phys. Rev. 107, 1259 (1957).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    H.S. Grienauer and K.R. Mayer, in ref. [6], p. 550.

  80. 80.

    W.F. Tseng, S.S. Lau, and J.W. Mayer, Phys. Lett. 68A, 93 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    F.C. Frank and D. Turnbull, Phys. Rev. 104, 617 (1956).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    W.R. Wilcox and T.J. LaChapelle, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 240 (1964).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    W.M. Bullis, Solid State Electronics 9, 143 (1966).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    U. Gösele, W. Frank, and A. Seeger, Appl. Phys. 23, 361 (1980); U. Gösele, F. Morehead, W. Frank, and A. Seeger, to be published in Appl. Phys. Lett.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    A. Seeger, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b), in press.

  86. 86.

    W. Frank et al., these proceedings.

  87. 87.

    For references see: J.R. Patel, in ref. [12], p. 521.

  88. 88.

    K. Tempelhoff et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 56, 213 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    J.R. Patel, K.A. Jackson, and H. Reiss, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 5297 (1977).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    T.Y. Tan and W.K. Tice, Phil. Mag. 34, 615 (1976).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    K. Wada, N. Inoue, and K. Kohra, J. Cryst. Growth 49, 749 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    P.E. Freeland et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 31 (1977).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    J. Osaka, N. Inoue and K. Wada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 289 (1980).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    S. Kishino et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 213 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Y. Matsushita et al., Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L101 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    S. Kishino et al., J. Appl. Phys. 50, 8240 (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    F. Shimura et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 483 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    S. Shirai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 156 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    S.M. Hu, to be published in J. Appl. Phys.

  100. 100.

    H. Föll, U. Gösele, and B.O. Kolbesen, J. Cryst. Growth 40, 90 (1977).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    S. Yasuami, J. Harada, and K. Wakamatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6860, (1979).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ulrich Gösele.

Additional information

On leave of absence from the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Germany

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gösele, U., Frank, W. Point Defects, Diffusion Mechanisms, and the Shrinkage and Growth of Extended Defects in Silicon. MRS Online Proceedings Library 2, 55 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-2-55

Download citation