Sol-Gel Film Formation by Dip Coating


The physical aspects of sol-gel film formation are discussed, including the steady state film profile during dip coating, evaporation, and capillary phenomena. It is argued that, since the evaporation rate increases singularly near a sharp boundary (analogous to an electric field singularity near a sharp conductor), the film profile near the drying line falls off precipitously, following the inverse form of the evaporation singularity. Finally, the large tensile pressures in the solvent during the final stage of drying of a porous film are discussed from the point of view of controlling the degree of capillary collapse.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    H. Schroder, in Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, edited by G. Haas and R. E. Thun, 5, 87 (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    C. J. Brinker, A. J. Hurd, G. C. Frye, K. J. Ward, and C. S. Ashley, in the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics. Glasses and Composites. J. Non-Crystalline Solids, (in press, 1990).

  3. 3.

    A. J. Hurd and C. J. Brinker, J. Phys. France 49, 1017 (1988).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    L. Landau and B. Levich, Acta Physicochim. (URSS) 17, 42 (1942).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    S. D. R. Wilson, J. Engg. Math. 16, 209 (1982).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    A. J. Hurd and C. J. Brinker, in Better Ceramics Through Chemistrv_III. edited by C. J. Brinker, D. E. Clark, and D. R. Ulrich (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh) 121, 731 (1988).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    N. A. Fuchs, Evaporation and Droplet Growth in Gaseous Media, (Pergamon, London, 1959) chapter 1.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, (Wiley, NY, 1975) section 2.11.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    J. G. Truong and P. C. Wayner, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4180 (1987).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 135 (1989).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    L. Landau and I. Llfshitz, Fluid Mechanics, (Pergamon, Oxford, 1959) chapter 7.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    C. J. Brinker, A. J. Hurd, and K. J. Ward, in Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Ceramics, edited by J. D. Mackenzie and D. R. Ulrich (Wiley, NY, 1988) p. 233.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    C.G.V. Burgess and D. H. Everett, J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 33, 611 (1970).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    L. E. Scriven, private communication (November, 1989).

  15. 15.

    P. C. Wayner, private communication (June, 1990); see also J. Schonberg and P. Wayner, AIAA Proceedings 90–1787.

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alan J. Hurd.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hurd, A.J., Jeffrey Brinker, C. Sol-Gel Film Formation by Dip Coating. MRS Online Proceedings Library 180, 575 (1990).

Download citation