The physical aspects of sol-gel film formation are discussed, including the steady state film profile during dip coating, evaporation, and capillary phenomena. It is argued that, since the evaporation rate increases singularly near a sharp boundary (analogous to an electric field singularity near a sharp conductor), the film profile near the drying line falls off precipitously, following the inverse form of the evaporation singularity. Finally, the large tensile pressures in the solvent during the final stage of drying of a porous film are discussed from the point of view of controlling the degree of capillary collapse.
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Hurd, A.J., Jeffrey Brinker, C. Sol-Gel Film Formation by Dip Coating. MRS Online Proceedings Library 180, 575 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-180-575