The physical aspects of sol-gel film formation are discussed, including the steady state film profile during dip coating, evaporation, and capillary phenomena. It is argued that, since the evaporation rate increases singularly near a sharp boundary (analogous to an electric field singularity near a sharp conductor), the film profile near the drying line falls off precipitously, following the inverse form of the evaporation singularity. Finally, the large tensile pressures in the solvent during the final stage of drying of a porous film are discussed from the point of view of controlling the degree of capillary collapse.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.
Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.
H. Schroder, in Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, edited by G. Haas and R. E. Thun, 5, 87 (1969).
C. J. Brinker, A. J. Hurd, G. C. Frye, K. J. Ward, and C. S. Ashley, in the Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Ultrastructure Processing of Ceramics. Glasses and Composites. J. Non-Crystalline Solids, (in press, 1990).
A. J. Hurd and C. J. Brinker, J. Phys. France 49, 1017 (1988).
L. Landau and B. Levich, Acta Physicochim. (URSS) 17, 42 (1942).
S. D. R. Wilson, J. Engg. Math. 16, 209 (1982).
A. J. Hurd and C. J. Brinker, in Better Ceramics Through Chemistrv_III. edited by C. J. Brinker, D. E. Clark, and D. R. Ulrich (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh) 121, 731 (1988).
N. A. Fuchs, Evaporation and Droplet Growth in Gaseous Media, (Pergamon, London, 1959) chapter 1.
J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, (Wiley, NY, 1975) section 2.11.
J. G. Truong and P. C. Wayner, Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4180 (1987).
G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 107, 135 (1989).
L. Landau and I. Llfshitz, Fluid Mechanics, (Pergamon, Oxford, 1959) chapter 7.
C. J. Brinker, A. J. Hurd, and K. J. Ward, in Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Ceramics, edited by J. D. Mackenzie and D. R. Ulrich (Wiley, NY, 1988) p. 233.
C.G.V. Burgess and D. H. Everett, J. Colloid and Interface Sci. 33, 611 (1970).
L. E. Scriven, private communication (November, 1989).
P. C. Wayner, private communication (June, 1990); see also J. Schonberg and P. Wayner, AIAA Proceedings 90–1787.
About this article
Cite this article
Hurd, A.J., Jeffrey Brinker, C. Sol-Gel Film Formation by Dip Coating. MRS Online Proceedings Library 180, 575 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-180-575