Flow behavior of a liquid or suspension depends on how stress varies with strain rate, strainrate rotation, and strain history, as well as the progress of evaporation, extent of reaction, and degree of aggregation in sol-gel systems. Rheological methods suitable for measuring flow behavior are summarized. Examples of measurements and microstructural observations by transmission electron microscopy made during gelation of four sol-gel systems are presented. The relation of rheological response to microstructure is discussed.
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Macosko, C.W., Mecartney, M.L. & Scriven, L.E. Rheology for Better Sol-Gel Fiber and Film Formation. MRS Online Proceedings Library 180, 555 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-180-555