The chemical and physical properties of two base-catalyzed silica gels systems were characterized. The sol-gel transition was studied by titration, rheometry, and NMR. Pyrolysis behavior was monitored by TGA and mass spectroscopy. Many characteristics were strikingly similar for the two base-catalyzed systems. However ammonium hydroxide additions resulted in heterogeneities at lower concentrations than ammonium carbonate. Ammonium carbonate enhanced oxidation on pyrolysis.
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Garvey, G.J., Smith, B.E. Base-Catalyzed Silica Gels: Structure and Chemistry. MRS Online Proceedings Library 180, 223 (1990). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-180-223