The deformation of poly(acrylic acid)—co—(acrylamide) gels and poly(vinyl alcohol)—poly(acrylic acid) gels under an electric field was investigated. Bending of these ionic gels was induced by an electic field. Using this deformation, we constructed a prototype of a robot hand having soft fingers, and an artificial fish able to swim.
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Kurauchi, T., Shiga, T., Hirose, Y. et al. Deformation Behavior of Polymer Gels in Electric Field. MRS Online Proceedings Library 171, 389–394 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-171-389