Embedded piezoresistive microcantilever (EPM) sensors were used to detect the presence of the compound estrogen in water samples. The sensor was fabricated with a host material hydrogel (Hypol) functionalized with estrogen antibody. This sensor was able to detect 1 ppm of estrogen in water, responding almost immediately to the estrogen addition, with a full sensor response (saturation) occurring after two minutes of exposure.
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Porter, T.L., Vail, T., Propper, C.R. et al. Bio-composite Materials for the Detection of Estrogen in Water Using Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1253, 1010 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1253-K10-10