Wafer bonding using benzocyclobutene (BCB) has been discussed in the past for three-dimensional (3D) integration. This paper reports the development and characterization of a manufacturable BCB bonding process for 300 mm wafers using standard 300 mm tools. A systematic optimization approach has been developed to characterize the bulk properties of the BCB film that can be applied to various integration schemes. We specifically discuss one such application—handle wafer bonding. BCB bonding for a range of cross-linking levels has been investigated. The cross-linking level of BCB before bonding is determined using an infrared (IR) variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) technique. The impact of the BCB film preparation and bonding condition on bond quality is characterized using scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) , IR microscopy, a razor blade test, and four-point bend methods. Based on the results, an optimum cross-linking level for BCB film before bonding was determined for 300 mm wafers to obtain void-free and dendrite-free bonds. Wafers bonded using the optimized BCB process conditions have successfully sustained backgrinding, dry thinning, and standard BEOL metallization steps.
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Singh, P., Hudnall, J., Qureshi, J. et al. An Optimized 300 mm BCB Wafer Bonding Process for 3D Integration. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1249, 906 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1249-F09-06