Copper migration during tungsten via formation


A yield problem is observed with tungsten vias formed on copper interconnects. Copper migration can occur during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten, if there are defects in the liner inside the via. Copper can react quickly with SiH4 during the early stages of tungsten deposition, when SiH4-reduction of WF6 is used. Under severe conditions, large amounts of copper diffuse out of the underlying metal layer, resulting in copper silicide formation in the via and leaving voids in the copper wire. Copper migration can be minimized by reducing the time that the wafers are exposed to SiH4.

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Gambino, J., Cooney, E., Murphy, W. et al. Copper migration during tungsten via formation. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1249, 108 (2010).

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