Variable frequency microwaves (VFM) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) were used to activate ion implanted dopants and re-grow implant-damaged silicon. Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the extent of dopant activation and revealed comparable resistivities for 30 seconds of RTA annealing at 900 °C and 6-9 minutes of VFM annealing at 540 °C. Ion channeling analysis spectra revealed that microwave heating removes the Si damage that results from arsenic ion implantation to an extent comparable to RTA. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the silicon lattice regains nearly all of its crystallinity after microwave processing of arsenic implanted silicon. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy reveals limited diffusion of dopants in VFM processed samples when compared to rapid thermal annealing. Our results establish that VFM is an effective means of low-temperature dopant activation in ion-implanted Si.
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Alford, T.L., Sivaramakrishnan, K., Indluru, A. et al. Low Temperature Dopant Activation Using Variable Frequency Microwave Annealing. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1245, 1609 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1245-A16-09