Investigation of Gd2@C90, Gd2C2@C92, and Gd2@C79N by Raman Spectroscopy

Abstract

The structure and vibrational spectrum of Gd2 and Gd2C2 endofullerenes are studied through Raman spectroscopy and universal force field (UFF) calculations. Hindered rotations, shown by both theory and experiment, indicate the formation of a Gd–cage bond, which reduces the ideal symmetry of the cage. We have conducted Raman studies of Gd2@C90, Gd2@C79N, and Gd2C2@C92. We have also studied Y2C2@C92 for comparison. Several modes have been identified which provide information about the endohedral complex.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    J. Heath, S. C. O’Brien, Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and R. E. Smalley, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 7779–7780 (1985).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    S. Kobayashi, S. Mori, S. Iida, H. Ando, T. Takenobu, Y. Taguchi, A. Fujiwara, A. Taninaka, H. Shinohara, and Y. Iwasa, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 8116 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    R. B. Ross, C. M. Cardona, D. M. Guldi, S. G. Sankaranarayanan, M. O. Reese, N. Kipipdakis, J. Peet, B. Walker, G. C. Bazan, E. Van Keuren, B. C. Holloway, and M. Drees, Nature Materials 8, 208 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    W. Harneit, Phys. Rev. A 65, 032322 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    J. A. Larsson, J. C. Greer, W. Harneit, and A. Weidinger, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 7849 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    H. Kato, Y. Kanazawa, M. Okumura, A. Taninaka, T. Yokawa, and H. Shinohara, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 4391 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    H. Yang, C. Lu, Z. Liu, H. Jin, Y. Che, M. M. Olmstead, and A. L. Balch, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 17296 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    T. Zuo, L. Xu, C. M. Beavers, M. M. Olmstead, W. Fu, T. D. Crawford, A. L. Balch, and H. C. Dorn, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 12992 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    S. Lebedkin, B. Renker, R. Heid, H. Schober, and H. Rietschel, Appl. Phys. A 66, 273 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    R. Jaffiol, A. Débarre, C. Julien, D. Nutarelli, P. Tchénio, A. Taninaka, B. Cao, T. Okazaki, and H. Shinohara, Phys. Rev. B 68, 014105 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    M. Krause, M. Hulman, H. Kuzmany, P. Kuran, L. Dunsch, T. J. S. Dennis, M. Inakuma, and H. Shinohara, J. Mol. Struct. 521, 325 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    M. Qian, S. V. Ong, S. N. Khanna, and M. B. Knickelbein, Phys. Rev. B 75, 104424 (2007).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    H. Shinohara, Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 843 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    K. Shibata, Y. Rikiishi, T. Hosokawa, Y. Haruyama, Y. Kubozono, Y. Kashino, T. Uruga, A. Fujiwara, H. Kitagawa, T. Takano, and Y. Iwasa, Phys. Rev. B 68, 094194 (2003).

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    L. Mora, R. S. Ruoff, C. H. Becker, D. C. Lorents, and R. Malhotra, Phys. Chem. 97, 6801 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    H. Funasaka, K. Sugiyama, K. Yamamoto, and T. Takahashi, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 1826 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    K. Laasonen, W. Andreoni, and M. Parrinello, Science 258, 1916 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    J. Ding, L. Weng, and S. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11120 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    K. Kobayashi and S. Nagase, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 227 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    B. G. Burke, J. Chan, K. A. Williams, J. Ge, C. Y. Shu, W. Fu, H. C. Dorn, J. G. Kushmerick, A. A. Puretzky, and D. B. Geohegan, Phys. Rev. B [accepted, arXiv:0910.5273].

  21. 21.

    M. Krause, X. Liu, J. Wong, T. Pichler, M. Knupfer, and L. Dunsch, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 7088 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Brian G. Burke.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Burke, B.G., Chan, TW.J., Williams, K.A. et al. Investigation of Gd2@C90, Gd2C2@C92, and Gd2@C79N by Raman Spectroscopy. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1204, 1020 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1204-K10-20

Download citation