Purification of diamond nanopowder (DNP) was conducted in a less-destructive mild polyphosphoric acid (PPA)/phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5). The wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the intensity of the characteristic diamond d-spacing (111) at 2.07 Å from purified DNP (PDNP) was fairly increased compared to pristine DNP, indicating that significant amount of carbonaceous impurities were removed. Chemical modification of pristine DNP and PDNP with 4-ethylbenzoic acid was carried out to afford 4-ethylbenzoyl-functionalized DNP (EBA-g-DNP) and PDNP (EBA-g-PDNP). The morphologies of EBA-g-DNP and EBA-g-PDNP from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were further affirmed the feasibility of chemical modification. The results suggested that the reaction condition was indeed viable for the one-pot purification and functionalization of DNP. The resultant functionalized DNP could be useful for nanoscale additives. Hence, EBA-g-DNP and EBA-g-PDNP was brominated by using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS). The resultant N-brominated DNP and PDNP could be used as initiator for the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to introduce many polymers onto the surface of functionalized DNP and PDNP.
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Lim, JK., Baek, JB. Purification and Functionalization of Diamond Nanopowders. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1203, 1752 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1203-J17-52