In this work, dome structures in PVDF films were prepared as ultrasonic transducer. The domes are realized by a deep drawing process. The dome-forming process leads to a phase transformation from the non-polar a into the polar β phase within dome wall and roof of the PVDF films. A ferroelectric polarization is obtained in these dome areas after suitable electrical poling which yields a piezoelectric activity. Because of the piezoelectric activity within the film plane, a dome-roof up-and-down actuation is observed with resonance frequencies in the range between 65 and 93 kHz.
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Wegener, M., Schwerdtner, R., Schueller, M. et al. Dome-like PVDF actuators: Preparation, phase transformation and piezoelectric properties. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1190, 0803 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1190-NN08-03