CuInS2 (chalcopyrite structure) thin films were synthesized at 250°C using a two-stage process consisting firstly in the co-evaporation of a large grain In2S3 (defect spinel structure) precursor layer followed by the addition of copper and sulfur. The crystalline properties of the resulting films are similar to those leading to high efficiency solar cells. An energy conversion efficiency of 6.7% has been attained with a 1.5 μm thick CuInS2 layer and a standard CdS buffer layer/ZnO window structure. Improved performances can be expected through the growth of thicker absorbers.
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Painchaud, T., Barreau, N. & Kessler, J. Solar Grade CuInS2 Thin Films Grown At 250°C. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1165, 822 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1165-M08-22