Effect of Shunts on Thin-Film CdTe Module Performance.


A 2-D numerical circuit model is used to analyze the impact of shunts on basic performance parameters of aCdTe thin-film module. A numerical estimate of module-efficiency loss in the worst-case scenario due to shunts of different severity and fractional module area is presented. It is shown that absolute module-efficiency lossΔη (%) varies in systematic fashion with these shunt parameters. Estimates ofΔη based on simple area-weighted efficiency are typically low by3-4 times. Furthermore, the distribution pattern of shunts over the module plays a significant role in the module loss. A reliable parameterP to characterize the distribution of shunts is introduced, and its effect on module-efficiency loss, as well as individual-parameter (FF,VOC andJSC) losses, is shown. Furthermore, higher transparent-conductive-oxide (TCO) sheet resistance is shown to increase shunt isolation and consequently mitigate the efficiency decrease.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    T.J. McMahon, T.J. Berniard, and D.S. Albin, Nonlinear shunt paths in thin-film CdTe solar cells, Journal of Applied Physics 97, 054503 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    A.L. Fahrenbruch, R.H. Bube, Fundamentals of Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Academic Press, New York, 1983, p. 362–364.

  3. 3.

    Galymzhan T. Koishiyev, James R. Sites, Impact of sheet resistance on 2-D modeling thin-film solar cells, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 93 (2009) 350–354.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Galymzhan T. Koishiyev.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Koishiyev, G.T., Sites, J.R. Effect of Shunts on Thin-Film CdTe Module Performance.. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1165, 522 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1165-M05-22

Download citation