To improve yield rates during integrated circuit fabrication a better understanding of the material removal process during CMP is sought. Many material removal models have been generated to predict the material removal rate (MRR) during CMP. The majority of such models estimate that the MRR is equal to the material removed by a single particle multiplied by the total number of particles contributing to the wear process. Particles contributing to the wear process are known as ‘active particles’. Several authors have proposed analytical models to estimate this quantity. This work introduces a new method for estimating the number of active particles in CMP by deducing it from the polish results of a multi-physics CMP model. By employing the particle-augmented mixed lubrication model (PAML) developed by Terrell and Higgs (2008), it is possible to determine the number of active particles in CMP. The predictions of PAML are compared with two popular analytical approaches which have been commonly used to predict the number of active particles during CMP.
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Mpagazehe, J.N., Thukalil, G. & Higgs, C.F. A Study to Estimate the Number of Active Particles in CMP. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1157, 202 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1157-E02-02