Trapping in low-κ dielectric for interconnects was highlighted by voltage shift in IV current-voltage measurements. It is shown that effects of trapping can impact the extraction of conduction mechanisms. Capacitance measurements made on these materials reveal that trapping is at the origin in the increase of capacitance. The creation of dipoles because of this trapping explains this increase in the value of capacitance.
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Verrière, V., Guedj, C., Roy, D. et al. Effect Of Trapping On Dielectric Conduction Mechanisms Of ULK/Cu Interconnects. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1156, 104 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1156-D01-04