This paper describes a new technique for fabrication of nano-sized taper structure formed by simple wet chemical etching using catalysis of gold (Au) nanoparticle. Single nano-sized Au particle dispersion solution was coated onto Si(111) substrate with polished surface. Then, the samples were soaked in an aqueous etching solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The surface of 15-min-etched Si substrate appeared black. The reflectivity of the Si substrate was reduced to below 5% throughout the entire spectrum from 300 to 800 nm owing to nano-sized taper structure called subwavelength structure (SWS). The fractional area occupied by Si as a function of the depth across the textured layer showed a smooth increase of density up to a depth. The observed optical effects are explained by the formation of a nanoscale taper structure, representing an effective medium with a smooth transition of the refractive index from that of air to that of Si.
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Nishioka, K., Horita, S. Nano-sized Taper Structure Formed by Wet Process Using Catalysis of Gold Nanoparticle. MRS Online Proceedings Library 1059, 907 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-1059-KK09-07