The segregation of As atoms at the Si/SiO2 interface during annealing was investigated by grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with successive removal of silicon layers by etching with thicknesses on the order of a nanometer. With this method it is possible to clearly distinguish between the segregated atoms and the As atoms in the bulk over a large range of implantation doses from 3•1012 cm−2 to 1•1016 cm−2. The samples were annealed at 900 °C and 1000 °C, respectively, for times sufficiently long to ensure that the segregation reflects an equilibrium effect. The results were confirmed by medium energy ion scattering, Z-contrast measurements and electron energy loss spectroscopy.
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Steen, C., Pichler, P., Ryssel, H. et al. Characterization of the Segregation of Arsenic at the Interface SiO2/Si. MRS Online Proceedings Library 994, 09940802 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-0994-F08-02