The behavior of diamond electrodes for electrochemical applications in aqueous media containing the protein bovine serum albumin has been explored, to examine the degree of electrode poisoning which occurs. Although the diamond electrode retains good activity in such solutions, electrode fouling is found at long contact times due to protein adsorption. Two adsorption processes are observed. The first is a simple physical adsorption mechanism, and can be simply reversed by washing the electrode in water. The second mechanism is only observed when negative potentials are applied to the diamond electrode and is attributed to the attraction and reaction of the positively charged protein at the electrode interface. Electrode poisoning is also observed in the presence of power ultrasound, although the electrochemical signals are usefully enhanced under these conditions due to enhanced mass transport to the electrode surface.
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Foord, J., Opperman, D. Surface and Electrochemical Studies of Thin Film Diamond. MRS Online Proceedings Library 956, 1502 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-0956-J15-02