Electron-Beam Directed Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Dendrimer Scaffold for Biomolecule Patterning

Abstract

A method for patterning biomolecules using electron beam (e-beam) lithography has been developed. A non-biofouling poly(ethylene glycol) terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was ablated by e-beam to create patterns aligned with the pre-existing features on the wafer. Aldehyde-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers were assembled in a layer-by-layer fashion in the ablated patterns to allow the covalent immobilization of oligonucleotide probes. The functionality of the attached oligonucleotides was demonstrated by the hybridization of fluorescently labeled complementary target oligonucleotides. The hybridized target oligonucleotides could be stripped and the regenerated surface bound probe oligonucleotides could be rehybridized with complementary target oligonucleotide.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1

    O. E. Beske and S. Goldbard, Drug Discovery Today 7 (18), S131 (2002).

  2. 2

    J. Piehler, Current Opinion in Structural Biology 15 (1), 4 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    K. Ramanathan, M. A. Bangar, M. Yun et al., Journal of the American Chemical Society 127 (2), 496 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou et al., Applied Physics Letters 85 (21), 4854 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Y. Cui, Q. Q. Wei, H. K. Park et al., Science 293 (5533), 1289 (2001); W. U. Wang, C. Chen, K. H. Lin et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 (9), 3208 (2005).

  6. 6

    H. M. Cui, M. Cruz-Correa, F. M. Giardiello et al., Science 299 (5613), 1753 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    M. F. Clarke, Nature 432 (7015), 281 (2004); S. K. Singh, C. Hawkins, I. D. Clarke et al., Nature 432 (7015), 396 (2004); S. Takayama, E. Ostuni, P. LeDuc et al., Nature 411 (6841), 1016 (2001); C. S. Chen, M. Mrksich, S. Huang et al., Science 276 (5317), 1425 (1997); S Raghavan and C. S. Chen, Advanced Materials 16 (15), 1303 (2004); A. Folch and M. Toner, Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 2, 227 (2000); B. Vogelstein and K. W. Kinzler, Nature Medicine 10 (8), 789 (2004); M. Ferrari, Nature Reviews Cancer 5 (3), 161 (2005).

  8. 8

    W.H. Koch, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 3 (9), 749 (2004); D. Sidransky, Nature Reviews Cancer 2 (3), 210 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    D. A. Markov, K. Swinney, and D. J. Bornhop, Journal of the American Chemical Society 126 (50), 16659 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Parijat Bhatnagar, Sonny S. Mark, Il Kim et al., Advanced Materials 18 (3), 315 (2006).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    D. Stamou, C. Musil, W. P. Ulrich et al., Langmuir 20 (9), 3495 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, Annual Review of Materials Science 28, 153 (1998); G. M. Whitesides, E. Ostuni, S. Takayama et al., Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 3, 335 (2001); J. C. McDonald and G. M. Whitesides, Accounts of Chemical Research 35 (7), 491 (2002).

  13. 13

    M. Tormen, T. Borzenko, B. Steffen et al., Applied Physics Letters 81 (11), 2094 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    B. Ilic and H. G. Craighead, Biomedical Microdevices 2 (4), 317 (2000).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    M. Veiseh, M. H. Zareie, and M. Q. Zhang, Langmuir 18 (17), 6671 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    K. B. Lee, S. J. Park, C. A. Mirkin et al., Science 295 (5560), 1702 (2002); S. Kramer, R. R. Fuierer, and C. B. Gorman, Chemical Reviews 103 (11), 4367 (2003); D. J. Pena, M. P. Raphael, and J. M. Byers, Langmuir 19 (21), 9028 (2003); J. H. Lim, D. S. Ginger, K. B. Lee et al., Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 42 (20), 2309 (2003); L. M. Demers, D. S. Ginger, S. J. Park et al., Science 296 (5574), 1836 (2002).

  17. 17

    K. Wadu-Mesthrige, N. A. Amro, J. C. Garno et al., Biophysical Journal 80 (4), 1891 (2001); K. Wadu-Mesthrige, S. Xu, N. A. Amro et al., Langmuir 15 (25), 8580 (1999).

  18. 18

    R. Benter, C. M. Niemeyer, and D. Wohrle, Chembiochem 2 (9), 686 (2001); S. Pathak, A. K. Singh, J. R. McElhanon et al., Langmuir 20 (15), 6075 (2004); P. Angenendt, J. Glokler, J. Sobek et al., Journal of Chromatography A 1009 (1–2), 97 (2003); E. Trevisiol, V. Le Berre-Anton, J. Leclaire et al., New Journal of Chemistry 27 (12), 1713 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    D. A. Tomalia, A. M. Naylor, and W. A. Goddard, Angewandte Chemie-International Edition in English 29 (2), 138 (1990).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    R. J. Marsh, R. A. L. Jones, and M. Sferrazza, Colloids and Surfaces B-Biointerfaces 23 (1), 31 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    J. Duchet, B. Chabert, J. P. Chapel et al., Langmuir 13 (8), 2271 (1997); J. Duchet, J. F. Gerard, J. P. Chapel et al., Composite Interfaces 8 (3–4), 177 (2001).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Parijat Bhatnagar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bhatnagar, P., Mark, S.S., Kim, I. et al. Electron-Beam Directed Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Dendrimer Scaffold for Biomolecule Patterning. MRS Online Proceedings Library 921, 408 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-0921-T04-08

Download citation