In-situ TEM studies of magnetization reversal processes in magnetic nanostructures

Abstract

One of the most widely studied types of magnetic nanostructure is that used in devices based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) phenomena. In order to understand the behaviour of these materials it is important to be able to follow their magnetisation reversal mechanism, and one of the techniques enabling micromagnetic studies at the sub-micron scale is transmission electron microscopy. Two techniques can be used: Lorentz transmission electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography, both of which allow the magnetic domain structure of a ferromagnetic material to be investigated dynamically in real-time with a resolution of a few nanometres. These techniques have been used in combination with in situ magnetizing experiments, to carry out qualitative and quantitative studies of magnetization reversal in a range of materials including spin-tunnel junctions, patterned thin film elements and magnetic antidot arrays. Quantitative analysis of the Lorentz TEM data has been carried out using the transport of intensity equation (TIE) approach.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1

    M.N. Baibich, J.M. Broto, A. Fert, F. Nguyen Van Dau, F. Petroff, P. Etienne, G. Creuzet, A. Friedrich and A. Chazelas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2472 (1988).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    B. Dieny, V.S. Speriosu, S.S.P. Parkin, B.A. Gurney, D.R. Wilhoit and D. Mauri, Phys. Rev. B43, 1297 (1991).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    W.J. Gallagher, S.S.P. Parkin, L. Yu, X.P. Bian, A. Marley R.A. Altman, S.A. Rishton, K.P. Roche, C. Jahnes, T.M. Shaw and X. Gang, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 3741 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    S. Tehrani, J.M. Slaughter, M. Deherrera, B.N. Engel, N.D. Rizzo. J. Salter, M. Durlam, R.W. Dave, J. Janesky, B. Butcher, K. Smith and G. Grynkewich, Proc. IEEE 91(5), 703 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    E.Yu Tsymbal, O.N. Mryasov and P.R. LeClair, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, R109 (2003).

  6. 6

    B.D. Terris and T. Thomson, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R199 (2005).

  7. 7

    D.A. Allwood, G. Xiong, M.D. Cooke and R.P. Cowburn, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 2175 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    P. Fischer, Curr. Opin. Sol. Stat. Mat. Sci. 7, 173 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Magnetic Microscopy of Nanostructures edited by H. Hopster and H.P. Oepen (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005).

  10. 10

    M.E. Hale, H.W. Fuller and H. Rubenstein, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 789 (1959).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    J.N. Chapman, J.Phys. D: Appl.Phys. 17, 623 (1984).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    M. De Graef and Y. Zhu, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7177 (2001).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    D. Paganin and K.A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    J.N. Chapman and G.R. Morrison, J. Magn. Mag. Mat. 35, 254 (1983).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    A.C. Daykin and A.K. Petford-Long, Ultramicrosc. 58, 365 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii and K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    W.O. Saxton, T.J. Pitt and M. Horner, Ultramicrosc. 4, 343 (1979).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Y.K. Lee, B.S. Chun, Y.K. Kim, I. Hwang, W. Park, T. Kim, H. Kim, J. Lee and W.C. Jeong, IEEE Trans. Mag. 41, 883(2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    T. Okuno, K. Mibu and T. Shinjo, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3612 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    C.A. Ross, M. Hwang, M. Shima, J.Y. Cheng, M. Farhoud, T.A. Savas, Henry I. Smith, W. Schwarzacher, F.M. Ross, F.B. Humphrey and M. Redjdal, Phys. Rev. B 65 144417 (2002).

  21. 21

    X. Portier, A.K. Petford-Long, T.C. Anthony and J.A. Brug, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 187, 145 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Amanda K. Petford-Long.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Petford-Long, A.K., Bromwich, T., Kohn, A. et al. In-situ TEM studies of magnetization reversal processes in magnetic nanostructures. MRS Online Proceedings Library 907, 401 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-0907-MM04-01

Download citation