Out-of-phase boundaries (OPBs), planar faults between regions of a crystal that are misaligned by a fraction of a unit cell dimension, occur frequently in materials of high structural anisotropy. Rarely observed in the bulk, OPBs frequently exist in epitaxial films of layered complex oxides, such as YBCO-type, Aurivillius, and Ruddlesden-Popper phases, and frequently propagate through the entire thickness of a film, due to their large offset and the improbability of opposite-sign OPB annihilation. OPBs have previously been demonstrated to have a significant impact upon properties, so it is important to understand their generation. These faults arise through the same few mechanisms in the various layered complex oxides.
An effort is made to unify the discussion of nucleation of these defects, common to layered oxide materials. OPBs can nucleate at the film-substrate interface (primary) via steric, chemical, or misfit mechanisms, or post-growth (secondary) through crystallographic shear during decomposition of volatile components. Examples of the mechanisms observed during highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of Aurivillius and Ruddlesden-Popper phases are presented. A method for estimating the relative OPB density in a film from correlation of x-ray diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ data with TEM information on OPBs is presented.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
S. N. Ruddlesden and P. Popper, Acta Cryst. 10, 538–539 (1957); 11, 54–55 (1958).
B. Aurivillius, Ark. Kemi 1, 463 (1950); 1, 499 (1950); 2, 519 (1951); 5, 39 (1953).
B. Aurivillius and P. H. Fang, Phys. Rev. 126, 893 (1962).
M. Dion, M. Ganne, and M. Tournoux, Mater. Res. Bull. 16, 1429 (1981); A. J. Jacobson, J. T. Lewandowski, and J. W. Johnson, J. Less-Common Met. 116, 137 (1986).; J. Gopalakrishnan, V. Bhat, and B. Raveau, Mater. Res. Bull. 22, 413 (1987).
R. J. Cava, in Advances in Superconductivity, Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Superconductivity, Eds. K. Kitazawa and T. Ishiguro (Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, 1989), pp 159–164.
J. Hauck and K. Mika, Supercond. Sci. Technol. 11 614 (1998).
J. H. Haeni, C. D. Theis, D. G. Schlom, W. Tian, X. Q. Pan, H. Chang, I. Takeuchi, and X. D. Xiang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3292 (2001).
M. A. Zurbuchen, J. Schubert, Y. Jia, D. J. Comstock, W. Tian, V. O. Sherman, D. Fong, M. E. Hawley, A. K. Tagantsev, S. K. Streiffer, and D. G. Schlom, submitted to Nature: Materials (2005).
M. A. Zurbuchen, Y. Jia, S. K. Knapp, A. H. Carim, D. G. Schlom, L-N. Zou, and Y. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2351 (2001).
M. A. Zurbuchen, D. G. Schlom, and S. K. Streiffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 887 (2001).
J. M. Cowley, Phys. Rev. A 138, 1384 (1965).
J. G. Allpress, Mater. Res. Bull. 4, 707 (1969).
J. Lettieri, Y. Jia, S. J. Fulk, D. G. Schlom, M. E. Hawley, and G. W. Brown, Thin Solid Films 379, 64 (2000).
M. A. Zurbuchen, Y. Jia, S. Knapp, A. H. Carim, D. G. Schlom, and X. Q. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3891 (2003).
M. A. Zurbuchen, Ph. D. Dissertation, (The Pennsylvania State University, 2002).
M. A. Zurbuchen, J. Lettieri, G. Asayama, Y. Jia, S. Knapp, A. H. Carim, D. G. Schlom, X. Q. Pan, and S. K. Streiffer, submitted to J. Mater. Res. (2005).
M. A. Zurbuchen, Y. Jia, S. K. Knapp, A. H. Carim, D. G. Schlom, and X. Q. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3891 (2003).
About this article
Cite this article
Zurbuchen, M.A., Lettieri, J., Jia, Y. et al. Out-of-phase Boundary (OPB) Nucleation in Layered Oxides. MRS Online Proceedings Library 902, 1055 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-0902-T10-55