Amorphous niobium oxide (Nb2O5) nano-tubes were fabricated inside anodic alumina templates using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The nanoporous templates were in-house fabricated anodic alumina membranes having an inter-pore distance of about 100 nm with pores lengths of 2 µm. The pores were parallel and well ordered in a hexagonal pattern. Atomic layer deposition was performed using gas pulses of niobium iodide (NbI5) and oxygen separated by purging pulses of argon. By employing long gas pulses (30 s) it was possible to get coherent and amorphous Nb2O5 films conformally covering the pore-walls of the alumina template. The outer diameter of the nano-tubes was tailored between 40 and 80 nm by using alumina templates with different pore sizes. By using template membranes with pores not opened in the bottom, nano-tubes with one side closed could be fabricated. Free-standing, and still parallel, nano-tubes could be obtained by selectively etching away the alumina template using phosphoric acid. Using the above mentioned procedure it was possible to fabricate unsurpassed parallel niobium oxide nano-tubes of equal length, diameter and wall-thickness, ordered in a perfect hexagonal pattern. The samples were analysed using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRFS).
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Rooth, M., Johansson, A., Boman, M. et al. Ordered and parallel niobium oxide nano-tubes fabricated using Atomic Layer Deposition in anodic alumina templates. MRS Online Proceedings Library 901, 405 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-0901-Ra24-05