Visible Light-Emitting Diodes Grown by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Hydride Vapor-Phase Epitaxy GaN Templates and the Development of Dichromatic (Phosphorless) White LEDs

Abstract

Much of the work on III-Nitride-based LEDs that has been published and applied commercially has been done using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as a method of film growth. We report on the growth and fabrication of visible light emitting diodes, by combining hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) and rf plasma-assisted MBE (PAMBE) methods. Thick (~7 μm to 10 μm) HVPE n+-GaN smooth and textured templates, were used as substrates for the growth of LED structures by rf-PAMBE. The active regions of the LED structures, which consist of InGaN/GaN MQWs, were grown using the pulsed nitrogen plasma technique leading to abrupt well and barrier interfaces as confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Using this method, we obtained InGaN/GaN MQWs whose room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra have a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 12 nm (105 meV). Visible LEDs on smooth GaN templates emitting in the blue to green were produced with EL spectrum FWHM as narrow as 27 nm. On the other hand, white LEDs without the use of phosphor have been produced utilizing textured MQWs as the active region, a phenomenon we initially attribute to different incorporation of In on the different QW-planes. The growth and fabrication of these devices was preceded by detailed growth and doping studies of the various layers of the LED structure. These include detailed nucleation studies on (0001) sapphire substrates as well as identification of kinetic factors which lead to good crystalline-quality InGaN alloys and InGaN/GaN MQWs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. N. Grandjean, et al., Electron. Lett. 33, 2156 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. S. E. Hooper, et al., Electron. Lett. 40, 33 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. C. Skierbiszewski, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011114 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. P. Waltereit, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2748 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. T. D. Moustakas, T. Lei, and R. J. Molnar, Physica B 185, 36 (1993).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. A. Bhattacharyya, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4956 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. R. Singh, D. Doppalapudi, and T. D. Moustakas, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2388 (1996).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. O. Brandt, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 90 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. S. Nakamura, et al., The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story, Second Edition (Springer, Berlin, 2000).

    Google Scholar 

  10. M. A. L. Johnson, et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1282 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. K. Kushi, et al., at. Sci Eng. B 59, 65 (1999).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. P. Waltereit, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2748 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. J. S. Cabalu, et al., Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5732, 185 (2005).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. I. Eliashevich, et al., Proc. SPIE 3621, 28 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jasper S. Cabalu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cabalu, J.S., Williams, A.D., Chen, TC.P. et al. Visible Light-Emitting Diodes Grown by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy on Hydride Vapor-Phase Epitaxy GaN Templates and the Development of Dichromatic (Phosphorless) White LEDs. MRS Online Proceedings Library 892, 1204 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-0892-FF12-04

Download citation