In this study, multilayered PbTixZr1-xO3 (PZT) samples (produced at sintering temperatures in the range of 1175 °C to 1325 °C) were electrically fatigued by long-term exposure (∼106 cycles) to electric fields, and the parameters of initial and remnant polarization were estimated. Changes in the crystallographic microstructure as a function of sintering temperature Ts were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to gain insight on fatigue mechanisms and their prevention. Results showed that domain wall movement was facilitated in samples processed at TS less than 1250 °C, and that such samples were more resistant to electrical fatigue.
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Müller, J., Stephanie, A.H. & Balzar, D. Microstructure-Controlled Multilayer PZT Actuators: Effects of Cyclic Actuation on Crystallographic Structure. MRS Online Proceedings Library 888, 803 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-0888-V08-03