Formation of maghemite nanoparticles in bismuth telluride materials containing iron

Abstract

Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) systems containing 2%, 4%, and 8% of iron were prepared using a low temperature wet chemical method. Iron oxide nanoparticles were formed when the samples were heated in hydrogen at 250 °C for at least six hours. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis measurements. The nanoparticles of iron oxide were identified as γ-Fe2O3 with a particle size of ~5 nm.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    J.J. Ritter: A novel synthesis of polycrystalline bismuth telluride. Inorg. Chem.336419 (1994)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    H.T. Zhang, X.G. Luo, C.H. Wang, Y.M. Xiong, S.Y. Li, X.H. Chen: Characterization of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride Bi2Te3 synthesized by a hydrothermal method. J. Cryst. Growth265558 (2004)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Y.L. Chen, J.G. Analytis, J-H. Chu, Z.K. Liu, S-K. Mo, X.L. Qi, H.J. Zhang, D.H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S.C. Zhang, I.R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, Z-X. Shen: Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3. Science325178 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    L.D. Dudkin, L.I. Petrova, V.M. Sokolova: Physicochemical processes at the Bi2Te2.4Se0.6/Fe contact. Inorg. Mater.35676 (1999)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    V.A. Kulbachinskii, A.Y. Kaminskii, K. Kindo, Y. Narumi, K. Suga, P. Lostak, P. Svanda: Ferromagnetism in new diluted magnetic semiconductor Bi2-xFexTe3. Physica B311292 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    W. Min, C. Lee, Y. Park, I. Park: Fabrication and thermoelectric properties of p-type Bi1Sb4Te7.5 alloy doped with Fe3O4. Mater. Sci. Forum510-5111086 (2006)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    A.N. Thorpe, F.E. Senftle, J.R. Grant: Magnetic study of magnetite in the Tagish Lake meteorite. Meteorit. Planet. Sci.37763 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    A.N. Thorpe, F.E. Senfle, M. Holt, J. Grant, W. Lowe, H. Anderson, E. Williams, C.L. Monkres, A. Barkatt: Magnetization, micro-x-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy studies of low concentrations of nanoscale Fe3O4 particles in epoxy resin. J. Mater. Res.152488 (2000)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    S.J. Lee, J.R. Jeong, S.C. Shin, J.C. Kim, J.D. Kim: Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles prepared by coprecipitation technique. J. Magn. Magn. Mater.282147 (2004)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    W. Zhou, K. Tang, S. Zeng, Y. Qi: Room temperature synthesis of rod-like FeC2O4·2H2O and its transition to maghemite, magnetite and hematite nanorods through controlled thermal decomposition. Nanotechnology19065602 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    G.F. Goya, T.S. Berquo, F.C. Fonseca: Static and dynamic magnetic properties of spherical magnetite nanoparticles. J. Appl. Phys.943520 (2003)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Y. Gao, S.A. Chambers: Heteroepitaxial growth of α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films by oxygen-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. J. Cryst. Growth174446 (1987)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    J.M.D. Coey: Magnetic properties of iron in soil iron oxides and clay minerals Iron in Soils and Clay Mineralsedited by J.W. Stucky, B.A. Goodman, and U. Schwertmann (D. Reidel Publishing Company, Boston, MA 1988)397–466

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    H. Soffel Paleomagnetism and Archaeomagnetism(Springer, Berlin 1991)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    M.J. Graham, D.A. Channing, G.A. Swallow, R.D. Jones: A Mössbauer study of the reduction of hematite in hydrogen at 535 °C. J. Mater. Sci.101175 (1975)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    H. Itoh, T. Sugimoto: Synthesis of monodispersed magnetic particles by the sol-gel method and their magnetic properties. Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal.132251 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    O. Baudisch, W.H. Albrecht: γ-ferric oxide hydrate. J. Am. Chem. Soc.54943 (1932)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    R.M. Cornell, U. Schwertmann The Iron Oxides2nd ed. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany 2003)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    J-L. Girardet, J.J. Lawrence: A crystallographic study of the inorganic core of the ferritin macromolecule. Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Cristallogr.91440 (1968)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    R.A. Eggleton, R.W. Fitzpatrick: New data and a revised structural model for ferrihydrite. Clays Clay Miner.36111 (1988)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    L. Mazzetti, P.J. Thistlewaite: Raman spectra and thermal transformations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite. J. Raman Spectrosc.33104 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    V. Barrón, J. Torrent: Evidence for a simple pathway to maghemite in Earth and Mars soils. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta662801 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    V. Barrón, J. Torrent, E. de Grave: Hydromaghemite, an intermediate in the hydrothermal transformation of 2-line ferrihydrite into hematite. Am. Mineral.881679 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Q. Liu, V. Barrón, J. Torrent, S.G. Eeckhout, C. Deng: Magnetism of intermediate hydromagnetite in the transformation of 2-line ferrihydrite into hematite and its paleoenvironmental implications. J. Geophys. Res. B: Solid Earth113, (1) B01103/1 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    E. Wolska, W. Szajda, P. Piszora: Effect of the anionic sublattice hydroxylation on the goethite → maghemite transformation in the AlxFe1-xOOH system. Mater. Lett.21191 (1994)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    E. Tronc, J.P. Jolivet: Surface effects on magnetically coupled iron oxide (“γ-Fe2O3”) colloids. Hyperfine Interact.28525 (1986)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    P.S. Sidhu: Transformation of trace element-substituted maghemite to hematite. Clays Clay Miner.3631 (1988)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. R. Grant.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Catchings, R.M., Thorpe, A.N., Grant, J.R. et al. Formation of maghemite nanoparticles in bismuth telluride materials containing iron. Journal of Materials Research 25, 2042–2046 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.2010.0259

Download citation