Strong bonding of titanium to copper through the elimination of the brittle interfacial intermetallics

Abstract

The microstructures, interfacial reactions, and bonding strength properties of the Ti–Cu dissimilar joints using a commercially available Ag–28Cu–2Ti filler were studied, particularly as they relate to the role of an Ag barrier layer at the Ti interface. A joint microstructure and interfacial reactions closely related to the formation of brittle interfacial Ti–Cu intermetallics were fully dominated by the presence of the Ag layer at the Ti interface. Reliable Ti(base)/TiAg/Ag/Ag–Cu eutectic/Cu(base) joints without any detrimental Ti–Cu intermetallics were achieved at low brazing temperatures below 810 °C by applying an Ag interlayer of suitable thickness. It was notable that their bonding strengths were strong enough to exceed the strength of a Cu bulk base metal. This research demonstrates the potential application of an Ag interlayer for the reliable Ti–Cu dissimilar joints.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

FIG. 1
TABLE I.
FIG. 2
FIG. 3
FIG. 4
FIG. 5
FIG. 6
FIG. 7
FIG. 8
FIG. 9

References

  1. 1

    R.K. Shiue, S.K. Wu, C.H. Chan: Infrared brazing Cu and Ti using a 95Ag-5Al braze alloy. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 35, 3177 2004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    R.K. Shiue, S.K. Wu, C.H. Chan: The interfacial reactions of infrared brazing Cu and Ti with two silver-based braze alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 372, 148 2004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    D.W. Liaw, R.K. Shiue: Brazing of Ti–6Al–4V and niobium using three silver-base braze alloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 36, 2415 2005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    C.C. Liu, C.L. Ou, R.K. Shiue: The microstructural observation and wettability study of brazing Ti–6Al–4V and 304 stainless steel using three braze alloys. J. Mater. Sci. 37, 2225 2002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    R.K. Shiue, S.K. Wu, C.H. Chan, C.S. Huang: Infrared brazing of Ti–6Al–4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel with a nickel barrier layer. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 37, 2207 2006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    P. He, J.C. Feng, B.G. Zhang, Y.Y. Qian: A new technology for diffusion bonding intermetallic TiAl to steel with composite barrier layers. Mater. Charact. 50, 87 2003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    D.W. Liaw, R.K. Shiue: Brazing of Ti–6Al–4V and niobium using three silver-base braze alloys. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 36, 2415 2005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    C.T. Chang, R.K. Shiue: Infrared brazing Ti–6Al–4V and Mo using the Ti–15Cu–15Ni braze alloy. Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater. 23, 161 2005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    T.B. Massalski: Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, Vol. 2, ASM International Materials Park, OH 1990 1495

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    L. Rongti, P. Wei, C. Jian, L. Jie: Thermodynamic properties of Ti in Ag–Cu–Ti alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 335, 21 2002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    M. Paulasto, F.J.J. van Loo, J.K. Kivilahti: Thermodynamic and experimental study of Ti–Ag–Cu alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 220, 136 1995

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    G. Humpston, D.M. Jacobson: Principles of Soldering and Brazing ASM International Materials Park, OH 1993 34

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    R.K. Shiue, S.K. Wu, S.Y. Chen: Infrared brazing of TiAl intermetallic using BAg–8 braze alloy. Acta Mater. 51, 1991 2003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    R.K. Shiue, S.K. Wu, S.Y. Chen: Infrared brazing of TiAl using Al-based brazed alloys. Intermetallics 11, 661 2003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    T.B. Massalski: Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, Vol. 1, ASM International Materials Park, OH 1990 29

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    T.B. Massalski: Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, Vol. 2, ASM International Materials Park, OH 1990 106

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    N.A. Dececco, J.M. Parks: The brazing of titanium. Welding J. 32, 1071 1953

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    N.A. Tiner: Metallurgical aspects of silver brazing titanium. Welding J. 34, 846 1955

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    P. Villars, A. Prince, H. Okamoto: Handbook of Ternary Alloy Phase Diagrams ASM International Materials Park, OH 1995

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, & Energy (MOCIE) through the National Mid- and Long-term Atomic Energy R&D Program of Korea.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M.K. Lee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lee, M., Lee, J., Lee, J. et al. Strong bonding of titanium to copper through the elimination of the brittle interfacial intermetallics. Journal of Materials Research 23, 2254–2263 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.2008.0269

Download citation