Control of interfacial reactions and strength of the SiC/SiC joints brazed with newly-developed Co-based brazing alloy


Co-based brazing alloy CoFeNi(Si, B)CrTi was designed for SiC joining. The periodic banded reaction structure that existed at the interface between SiC and the traditional Ni-based or Co-based braze has been eliminated by the new brazing alloy. The maximum room-temperature four-point bend strength of 161 MPa was achieved for SiC/SiC joint under the optimum brazing condition of brazing filler thickness of 120 μm, brazing temperature of 1150 °C, and brazing time of 10 min. The corresponding reaction layer of the SiC/SiC joint is composed of multilayer silicides and TiC band, and many small TiC particles are scattered throughout the matrix of the central part of the joint. The joints thus exhibit stable high-temperature strength. It is believed that the formation of TiC in the joint contributes not only to the elimination of the periodic banded reaction structure, but also to the high joint strength and the high-temperature stability.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

FIG. 1
FIG. 2
FIG. 3
FIG. 4
FIG. 5
FIG. 6
FIG. 7
FIG. 8
FIG. 9
FIG. 10


  1. 1

    S.J. Dapkunas: Ceramic heat exchangers. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 67, 388 1988

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    G. Magnani, L. Beaulardi, C. Mingazzini E. Marmo: Mo-based compounds for SiC-SiC joints. Key Eng. Mater. 206–213, 583 2002

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    R.H. Jones, C.H. Henager Jr.: Fusion reactor application issues for low activation SiC/SiC composites. J. Nucl. Mater. 219, 55 1995

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    M. Ferraris C. Badini: Montorsi, Appendino P, Scholz HW. Joining of SiCf/SiC composites for thermonuclear. J. Nucl. Mater. 212-215, 1613 1994

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    A. Kuramada, Y. Imamura, Y. Tomota, T. Oku, Y. Kubota N. Noda: Evaluation of the integrity of diverter models of tungsten or SiC/SiC composites jointed with copper. J. Nucl. Mater. 313–316, 245 2003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    R.H. Jones, L. Giancarli, A. Hasegawa, Y. Katoh, A. Kohyama, B. Riccardi, L.L. Snead W.J. Weber: Promise and challenges of SiCf/SiC composites for fusion energy applications. J. Nucl. Mater. 307–311, 1057 2002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    R.E. Loehman A.P. Tomsia: Joining of ceramics. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 67(2), 375 1988

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    K. Suganuma, T. Okamoto, Y. Miyamoto, M. Shimada M. Koizumi: Joining Si3N4 to type 405 steel with soft metal interlayers. Mater. Sci. Technol. 2, 1156 1986

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    S. Kang, E.M. Dunn, J.H. Seleverian H.J. Kim: Issues in ceramic-to-metal joining: an investigation of brazing a silicon nitride-based ceramic to a low-expansion superally. Ceram. Bull. 68(9), 1608 1989

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    T. Yamada, H. Sekiguchi, H. Okamoto, S. Azuma, A. Kitamura K. Fukaya: Diffusion bonding SiC or Si3N4 to Nimonic 80A. High Temp. Technol. 5(4), 193 1987

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    J.H. Chen, G.Z. Wang, K. Nogi, M. Kamai, N. Sato N. Iwamoto: The metallurgical behaviour during brazing of Ni-base alloy Inconel 600 to Si3N4 with Ag71Cu27Ti2 filler metal. J. Mater. Sci. 28, 2933 1993

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    W.C. Lee: Joint strength and interfacial microstructure in silicon nitride/nickel-based Inconel 718 alloy bonding. J. Mater. Sci. 32, 221 1997

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    C.H. Bates, M.R. Foley, G.A. Rossi, G.J. Sundberg F.J. Wu: Joining of non-oxide ceramics for high-temperature applications. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 69(3), 350 1990

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    A.E. Martinelli, A.M. Hadian R.A.L. Drew: A review on joining non-oxide ceramics to metals. J. Can. Ceram. Soc. 66(4), 276 1997

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    M.G. Nicholas D.A. Mortimer: Ceramic/metal joining for structural applications. Mater. Sci. Technol. 1, 657 1985

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    R.E. Loehman, A.P. Tomsia, J.A. Pask S.M. Johnson: Bonding mechanism in silicon nitride brazing. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73(3), 552 1990

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    A.P. Tomsia, J.A. Pask R.E. Loehman: Joining of ceramics with Ag-Cu-Ti brazing alloy. Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 10, 1631 1989

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    M. Naka, T. Tanaka I. Okamoto: Joining of silicon nitride using amorphous Cu-Ti filler metal. Trans. JWRI 16, 83 1987

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    T. Nishino S. Urai: Interface microstructure and strength of SiC/SiC joint brazed with Cu-Ti alloys. Eng. Fract. Mech. 40, 829 1991

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    H.K. Lee J.Y. Lee: A study of the wetting, microstructure and bond strength in brazing SiC by Cu-X(X=Ti, V, Nb, Cr) alloys. J. Mater. Sci. 31, 4133 1996

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    J. Lopez-Cuevas, H. Jones H.V. Atkinson: The effect of surface preoxidation of sintered silicon carbide on its wettability by silver-copper based brazing alloys in vacuo. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 266, 161 1999

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    K. Suganuma, T. Okamoto, M. Koizumi M. Shimada: Joining of silicon nitride to silicon nitride and to Invar alloy using an aluminium interlayer. J. Mater. Sci. 22, 1359 1987

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    A.P. Xian Z.Y. Si: Interlayer design for joining pressureless sintered sialon ceramic and 40Cr steel brazing with Ag57Cu38Ti5 filler metal. J. Mater. Sci. 27, 1560 1992

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    J.H. Kim Y.C. Yoo: Microstructure and bond strength of Ni-Cr steel/Si3N4 joint brazed with Ag-Cu-Zr alloy. Mater. Sci. Technol. 14, 352 1998

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    M. Naka, M. Kubo I. Okamoto: Brazing of Si3N4 to metals with Al-Cu filler metals. Trans. JWRI 19(1), 33 1990

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    H.P. Xiong, C.G. Wan Z.F. Zhou: Development of a new CuNiTiB brazing alloy for joining Si3N4 to Si3N4. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 29, 2591 1998

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    U. Reichel H. Warlimont: Rapidly solidified CoTi Alloys as brazing foils for high-temperature joining of silicon nitride ceramic. Z. Metallkd. 90(9), 699 1999

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    M. Paulasto, G. Ceccone, S.D. Peteves, R. Voitovich N. Eustathopoulos: Brazing of Si3N4 with Au-Ni-V-Mo filler alloy. Ceram. Trans. 77, 91 1997

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    S. Kang H.J. Kim: Design of high-temperature brazing alloys for ceramic-metal joints. Weld. J. 74(9), 289s 1995

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    W. Tillmann, E. Lugscheider, K. Schlimbach, C. Manter J.E. Indacochea: Heat-resistant active brazing of silicon nitride, part 2: Metallurgical characterization of the braze joint. Weld. J. 77, 103s 1998

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    H. Okamura: Brazing ceramics and metals. Weld. J. Int. 7(3), 236 1993

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    J.H. Selverian S. Kang: Ceramic to metal joints brazed with palladium alloys. Weld. J. 71, 25 1992

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    W. Tillmann, E. Lugscheider, K. Schlimbach, C. Manter J.E. Indacochea: Heat-resistant active brazing of silicon nitride, part 1: Mechanical evaluation of braze joints. Weld. J. 76, 300 1997

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    A.M. Hadian R.A.L. Drew: Strength and microstructure of silicon nitride ceramics brazed with nickel-chromium-silicon alloys. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79(3), 659 1996

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    G. Ceccone, M.G. Nicholas, S.D. Peteves, A.A. Kodentsov, J.K. Kivilahti F.J.J. van Loo: The brazing of Si3N4 with Ni-Cr-Si alloys. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 15, 563 1995

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    M. Naka, H. Taniguchi I. Okamoto: Heat-resistant brazing of ceramics (report). Trans. JWRI 19(1), 25 1990

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    B. Riccardi, C.A. Nannetti, J. Woltersdorf, E. Pippel T. Petrisor: Joining of SiCf/SiC composites. J. Mater. Sci. 37, 5029 2002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    J.R. McDermid R.A.L. Drew: Thermodynamic brazing alloy design for joining silicon carbide. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(8), 1855 1991

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    J.R. McDermid, M.D. Pugh R.A.L. Drew: The interaction of reacion-bonded silicon carbide and Inconel 600 with a nickel-based brazing alloy. Metall. Mater. Trans., A 20, 1803 1989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    R.L. Mehan D.W. Mckee: Interaction of metals and alloys with silicon-based ceramics. J. Mater. Sci. 11, 1009 1976

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    R.L. Mehan R.B. Bolon: Interaction between silicon carbide and a nickel-based superalloy at elevated temperatures. J. Mater. Sci. 14, 2471 1979

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    M.R. Jackson, R.L. Mehan, A.M. Davis E.L. Hall: Solid state SiC/Ni alloy reaction. Metall. Trans. A 14, 355 1983

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    T.C. Chou: Interfacial debonding by solid-state reactions of SiC with Ni and Co. Scripta Metall. Mater. 29, 255 1993

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    R.C.J. Schiepers, F.J.J. Van Loo G. De With: Reactions between α-silicon carbide ceramic and nickel or iron. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71(6), C–284 1988

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45

    W.M. Tang, Z.X. Zheng, H.F. Ding Z.H. Jin: A study of the solid state reaction between silicon carbide and iron. Mater. Chem. Phys. 74, 258 2002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46

    C.X. Liu: Study on zirconium getter for diffusion welding. In New Advances in Welding and Allied Processes, Proceedings of the International Conference, 8–10 May 1991, Beijing, China, edited by the Welding Institution of the Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society and Deutscher Verband fur Schweisslechnik e. V., International Academic Publishers 1991 345

  47. 47

    H.P. Xiong, X.H. Li, W. Mao Y.Y. Cheng: Wetting behavior of Co based active brazing alloys on SiC and the interfacial reactions. Mater. Lett. 57, 3417 2003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48

    J.S. Park, K. Landry J.H. Perepezko: Kinetic control of silicon carbide/metal reactions. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 259, 279 1999

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49

    J.H. Gulpen, A.A. Kodentsov F.J.J. Loo: Growth of Silicides in Ni-SiC bulk diffusion couples. Z. Metallkd. 86(8), 530 1995

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50

    F.W. Seng P.A. Barnes: Calculations of cobalt silicide and carbide formation on SiC using the Gibbs free energy. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 76, 225 2000

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51

    S.L. Chang, S.H. Jung, H.R. Jung, H.A. Keun, B. In-Tae, I. Manabu, H. Yashihiko: Interface formation and phase distribution induced by Co/SiC solid state reactions. Mater. Trans. 43(5), 1225 2002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52

    C.S. Lim, H. Nickel, A. Naoumidis E. Gyarmati: Interface structure and reaction kinetcis between SiC and thick cobalt foils. J. Mater. Sci. 31, 4241 1996

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53

    M. Backhaus-Ricoult: Solid state reactions between silicon carbide and (Fe, Ni, Cr)-alloys:reaction paths, kinetics and morphology. Acta Metall Mater. 40(Suppl.), S95 1992

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54

    JCPDS No. 48-1339 Ni2Si International Center for Diffraction Data: Newton Square, PA, 1993

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55

    JCPDS No. 50-1337 CoSi International Center for Diffraction Data: Newton Square, PA, 1997

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56

    JCPDS No. 7-186 Cr3Si International Center for Diffraction Data: Newton Square, PA, 1956

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57

    JCPDS No. 45-1207 Fe3Si International Center for Diffraction Data: Newton Square, PA, 1979

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58

    JCPDS No. 35-783 Cr23C6 International Center for Diffraction Data: Newton Square, PA, 1984

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59

    JCPDS No. 32-1383 TiC International Center for Diffraction Data: Newton Square, PA, 1981

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60

    JCPDS No. 26-1076 C International Center for Diffraction Data: Newton Square, PA, 1974

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61

    JCPDS No. 29-1131 SiC. International Center for Diffraction Data: Newton Square, PA, 1969

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62

    M.G. Nicholas: Overview Joining of Ceramics, edited by Nicholas MG. Chapman and Hall 1990 1

  63. 63

    I. Belousov E. Rudenko: Local Nucleation and Lateral Crystallisation of the Silicide Phases in CoSi2 Buffer Layer of YBCO/CoSi2/Si Structure., Materials for Advanced Metallization 1997

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64

    R. Kamo W. Bryzik: Properties of binary compounds. Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. 5, 312 1984

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65

    I. Gotman E.Y. Gutmanas: Microstructure and thermal stability of coated Si3N4 and SiC. Acta Metall. Mater. 40(suppl.), S121 1992

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This research work is sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Contract Nos. 59905022 and 50475160).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hua-Ping Xiong.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Xiong, HP., Mao, W., Xie, YH. et al. Control of interfacial reactions and strength of the SiC/SiC joints brazed with newly-developed Co-based brazing alloy. Journal of Materials Research 22, 2727–2736 (2007).

Download citation