Thermal effects on mechanical grinding-induced surface texture in tetragonal piezoelectrics

Abstract

The effect of temperature on grinding-induced texture in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead titanate (PT) has been investigated using in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) with an area detector. In contrast with previous results on electrical poling, mechanically-ground PT and soft PZT materials retain strong ferroelastic textures during thermal cycling, even after excursions to temperatures slightly above the Curie temperature. The relationship between the residual stresses in the surface region, caused by grinding, and those resulting from domain wall motion is elucidated by in situ texture measurements obtained during thermal cycling.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

TABLE I.
FIG. 1
FIG. 2
FIG. 3
FIG. 4
FIG. 5
FIG. 6
FIG. 7
FIG. 8

References

  1. 1

    W. Chang, A.H. King K.J. Bowman: Thermal effects on domain orientation of tetragonal piezoelectrics studied by in situ x-ray diffraction. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 242901 2006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    K.J. Bowman: Texture from domain switching of tetragonal zirconias. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(10), 2690 1991

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    A.V. Virkar R.L.K. Matsumoto: Ferroelastic domain switching as a toughening mechanism in tetragonal zirconia. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69(10), C224 1986

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    K. Mehta A.V. Virkar: Fracture mechanisms in ferroelectric-ferroelastic lead zirconate titanate (Zr:Ti=0.54:0.46) ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73(3), 567 1990

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    S. Cheng, I.K. Lloyd M. Kahn: Modification of surface texture by grinding and polishing lead zirconate titanate ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 75(8), 2293 1992

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    B-S. Li, J-S. Cherng, K.J. Bowman I-W. Chen: Domain switching as a toughening mechanism in tetragonal zirconia. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71(7), C362 1988

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    K. Mehta, J.F. Jue A.V. Virkar: Grinding-induced texture in ferroelastic tetragonal zirconia. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73(6), 1777 1990

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    M.V. Swain R.H.J. Hannink: Metastability of the martensitic transformation in a 12 mol% ceria-zirconia alloy: II. Grinding studies. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72(8), 1358 1989

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    C.C. Li, X.W. Zhang Y.J. Xia: The measurement of space distribution of domains in polarized PZT ceramics. Ferroelectrics 37, 623 1981

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    J.L. Jones, E.B. Slamovich K.J. Bowman: Domain texture distributions in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate by x-ray and neutron diffraction. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 034113 2005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    J.L. Jones, E.B. Slamovich K.J. Bowman: Critical evaluation of the lotgering degree of orientation texture indicator. J. Mater. Res. 19(11), 3414 2004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    J.L. Jones, S.C. Vogel, E.B. Slamovich K.J. Bowman: Quantifying texture in ferroelectric bismuth titanate ceramics. Scripta Mater. 51, 1123 2004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    F.F. Lange, M.R. James D.J. Green: Determination of residual surface stresses caused by grinding in polycrystalline Al2O3. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 66(2), C16 1983

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    D. Johnson-Walls, A.G. Evans, D.B. Marshall M.R. James: Residual stresses in machined ceramic surfaces. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69(1), 44 1986

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    J-H. Chen, B-H. Hwang, T-C. Hsu H-Y. Lu: Domain switching of barium titanate ceramics induced by surface grinding. Mater. Chem. Phys. 91, 67 2005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    B. Eigenmann E. Macherauch: Determination of inhomogeneous residual stress states in surface layers of machined engineering ceramics by synchrotron x-rays. Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res., Sect. B. 97, 92 1995

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    H. Behnken V. Hauk: Determination of steep stress gradients by x-ray diffraction—Results of a joint investigation. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 300, 41 2000

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    S.Y. Yu, X.S. Han B. Lin: A study on surface quality of ultraprecision grinding for engineering ceramics. Key Eng. Mater. 202–203, 35 2001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    I.A. Cutter R. McPherson: Surface domain reorientation produced by abrasion and annealing of polycrystalline BaTiO3. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55(7), 334 1972

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    A. Yamada, T. Ogawa Y-K. Chung: Crystal orientation of tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramic surface and its aging behavior. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 5958 1997

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    M. Hammer, C. Monty, A. Endriss M.J. Hoffmann: Correlation between surface texture and chemical composition in undoped, hard, and soft piezoelectric PZT ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81(3), 721 1998

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    X. Li, W.Y. Shih, J.S. Vartuli, D.L. Milius, I.A. Aksay W-H. Shih: Effect of a transverse tensile stress on the electric-field-induced domain reorientation in soft PZT: In situ XRD study. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85(4), 844 2002

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, DMR-0224991. Materials and assistance were provided by Piezo Technologies, Indianapolis, IN. Thanks also to Elliott Slamovich, William Shelley, and Jacob L. Jones for important discussions and suggestions.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wonyoung Chang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Chang, W., King, A.H. & Bowman, K.J. Thermal effects on mechanical grinding-induced surface texture in tetragonal piezoelectrics. Journal of Materials Research 22, 2845–2850 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.2007.0355

Download citation