Photo-oxidatively self-cleaning transparent titanium dioxide films on soda lime glass: The deleterious effect of sodium contamination and its prevention

Abstract

In the context of photocatalytically self-cleaning windows and windshields, clear, abrasion resistant, thin (60 ± 10 nm) photocatalytic films of TiO2 were formed by a sol-gel process on (a) soda lime glass, (b) the proton-exchanged surface of soda lime glass, and (c) fused silica. The hypothesis that diffusion of sodium oxide from the soda lime glass into the titanium dioxide layer during the calcination step causes the lower photoefficiency in films on glass was tested and proven. At high concentration sodium prevented formation of the photoactive anatase phase and, at low concentration, introduced surface and bulk recombination centers. Sodium transport was efficiently blocked by a thin layer at the interface of proton-exchanged (“hydrogen”) glass and nascent TiO2, formed at 400 °C of a poly(titanyl acetylacetonate) TiO2 precursor. The sodium transport blocking layer did not form and the highly photocatalytic film was not obtained when the TiO2-precursor film was applied to glass that was not proton exchanged. Furthermore, only a much less effective sodium transport blocking layer was formed on glass that was proton-exchanged, but was calcined at 400 °C prior to application of the TiO2 precursor layer, showing that the sodium depleted glass surface, by itself, was a less effective barrier against sodium transport than the interfacial product of hydrogen glass and the TiO2 precursor.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    (a) D. M. Blake, Bibliography of Work on the Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, May 1994. (b) O. Legrini, E. Oliveros, and M. A. Braun, Chem. Rev. 93, 671 (1993). (c) M. A. Fox and M. T. Dulay, Chem. Rev. 93, 267 (1993). (d) Photocatalytic Purification and Treatment of Water and Air, edited by D. F. Ollis and H. Al-Ekabi (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993). (e) Proceedings of The First International Conference on TiO2 Photocatalytic Purification and Treatment of Air and Water; London, Ontario, Canada (1992). (f) Proceedings of The Second International Conference on TiO2 Photocatalytic Purification and Treatment of Air and Water; London, Ontario, Canada (1992).

  2. 2.

    Y. Paz, Z. Luo, L. Rabenberg, and A. Heller, J. Mater. Res. 10, 2842 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    H. Cui, H-S. Shen, Y-M. Gao, K. Dwight, and A. Wold, Mater. Res. Bull. 28, 195 (1993).

  4. 4.

    S. Fukayama, K. Kawamura, T. Saito, T. Iyoda, K. Hashimoto, and A. Fujishima, the 187th Electrochemical Society Meeting, 95-1, Reno, NV (1995).

  5. 5.

    W. W. Xu, R. Kershaw, K. Dwight, and A. Wold, Mater. Res. Bull. 25, 1385 (1990).

  6. 6.

    H. K. Pulker, “Coating on Glass,” Thin Films Science and Technology (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984), Vol. 6.

  7. 7.

    I. Keesmann, Z. Anorgan. Allgem. Chem. 30, 346 (1966).

  8. 8.

    H. Bach and H. Schroeder, Thin Solid Films 1, 255 (1967/68).

  9. 9.

    D. W. Bahnemann, Isr. J. Chem. 33, 115 (1993).

  10. 10.

    N. A. Kotov, F. C. Meldrum, and J. H. Fendler, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 8827 (1994).

  11. 11.

    W. Gopel, J. A. Anderson, D. Frankel, M. Jaehnig, K. Phillips, J. A. Schafer, and G. Rocker, Surf. Sci. 139, 333 (1984).

  12. 12.

    L-Q. Wang, D. R. Baer, and M. H. Engelhard, Surf. Sci. 320, 295 (1994).

  13. 13.

    C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs, L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, and G. E. Muilenberg, Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Perkin-Elmer, Eden Prairie, MN).

  14. 14.

    C. G. Pantano, Jr., D. B. Dove, and G. Y. Onoda, Jr., Non-Cryst. Solids 19, 41 (1975).

  15. 15.

    E. L. Williams, Glass Industry 43, 186 (1962).

  16. 16.

    R. W. Douglas and J. O. Isard, J. Soc. Glass Technol. 33, 289 (1949).

  17. 17.

    M. R. Boccuti, K. M. Rao, A. Zecchina, G. Leofanti, and G. Petrini, in Structure and Reactivity of Surfaces, edited by C. Morterra, A. Zecchina, and G. Costa (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989), pp. 133–145.

  18. 18.

    S. P. Mirajkar, A. Thangaraj, and V. P. Shiralkar, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3073 (1992).

  19. 19.

    H. Schroeder, Phys. Thin Films 5, 87 (1969).

  20. 20.

    M. Formenti, F. Juillet, P. Meriaudeau, and S. J. Teichner, Chem. Technol. 1, 680 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Paz, Y., Heller, A. Photo-oxidatively self-cleaning transparent titanium dioxide films on soda lime glass: The deleterious effect of sodium contamination and its prevention. Journal of Materials Research 12, 2759–2766 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1997.0367

Download citation