The growth mechanism is governed by a competition between the arrival rate of Pb and their re-evaporation from the film during the growth. The in situ formation temperature of the perovskite phase increased when the incident Pb flux increased. As a result, PbTiO3 films have been prepared at low temperature with appropriate combination of the substrate temperature and the lead content in the target, i.e., the sputtered lead flux. Since the lead sticking coefficient is very sensitive to the substrate material, the perovskite phase appears at different temperatures, depending on the substrate nature. PbTiO3 films are obtained at 550 °C on Al2O3 and SrTiO3 substrates; on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt substrates, stoichiometric films are obtained at 440 °C. The structure and the microstructure of the films were examined at various deposition conditions. The substrate temperature strongly influenced the film orientation, and the crystallinity depended on the incident lead flux. High quality thin films (FWHM = 0.2°) are obtained at 550 °C on SrTiO3 substrates. The films deposited at 440 °C on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt show ferroelectric properties. This self-controlling mechanism of the stoichiometric composition allows the growth of ferroelectric films at low temperature, compatible with semi-conductor technologies for the realization of integrated circuits.
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Jaber, B., Rèmiens, D. & Thierry, B. In situ sputter deposition of PbTiO3 thin films on different substrates: Influence of the growth temperature and the sputtered lead flux on the perovskite phase formation. Journal of Materials Research 12, 997–1007 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1997.0140