Formation of ultrathin CoSi2 films using a two-step limited reaction process

Abstract

The formation of ultrathin (≤20 nm) and smooth CoSi2 layers on c–Si substrates has been studied by using a one- and a two-step RTP silicidation method. Pinhole-free silicide layers with a thickness down to ∼10–12 nm were formed on n, n+, and p+ crystalline Si substrates in the one-step RTP process by sputtering of Co films as thin as 4 nm and subsequent silicidation at 750 °C for 5 or 30 s. The two-step RTP silicidation method is based on the consumption of only a small fraction of a thick sputtered Co film to form Co2Si or CoSi during a first RTP step at 400–500 °C. A selective etch follows to remove the unreacted Co film. During a second, higher temperature, RTP step CoSi2 is formed. Pinhole-free and smooth CoSi2 films with a thickness down to 20 nm were formed in this way on both n+ and p+ monocrystalline Si substrates.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1

    B. Davari, W-H. Chang, K.E. Petrillo, C.Y. Wong, D. Moy, Y. Taur, M. R. Wordeman, J. Y-C. Sun, C. C-H. Hsu, and M. R. Polcari, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev. 39, 967 (1992).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    R. Liu, D. S. Williams, and W. T. Lynch, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1990 (1988).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Y. Taur, B. Davari, D. Moy, J. Y-C. Sun, and C. Y. Ting, IBM J. Res. Develop. 31, 627 (1987).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    M. H. Juang and H. C. Cheng, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1271 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    H. Jiang, C.M. Osburn, Z-G. Xiao, G.E. McGuire, and G.A. Rozgonyi, J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 211 (1992), and references therein.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    K. Elst, W. Vandervorst, T. Clarysse, W. Eichhammer, and K. Maex, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10 (1), 524 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    M. Lawrence, A. Dass, D.B. Fraser, and C-S. Wei, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1308 (1991).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    S. L. Hsia, T. Y. Tan, P. Smith, and G. E. McGuire, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 1864 (1992) and J. Appl. Phys. 70, 7579 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Z. G. Xiao, G. A. Rozgonyi, C. A. Canovai, and C. M. Osburn, J. Mater. Res. 7, 269 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    R. J. Schreutelkamp, B. Deweerdt, R. Verbeeck, and K. Maex, Micro-Electronic Eng. 19, 665 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    I. Sakai, H. Abiko, H. Kawaguchi, T. Hirayama, L. E. G. Johansson, and K. Okabe, 1992 Symp. on VLSI Technology, Digest of Technical Papers, 8A-1, p. 66.

  12. 12

    W. Lur and L.J. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 3505 (1988).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    W. Chen, J. Liu, S. Banerjee, and J. Lee, in Advanced Metallization and Processing for Semiconductor Devices and Circuits II, edited by A. Katz, S. P. Murarka, Y. I. Nissim, and J. M. E. Harper (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 260, Pittsburgh, PA, 1992), p. 163.

  14. 14

    J. P. Gambino, E. G. Colgan, and B. Cunningham, in Interconnection and Contact Metallization for ULSI, edited by T. O. Herndon and A. L. Wu (The Electrochemical Society, 1992), Vol. 92–6, p. 264.

  15. 15

    C.M. Osburn, Q.F. Wang, M. Kellam, C. Canovai, P.L. Smith, G. E. McGuire, Z. G. Xiao, and G. A. Rozgonyi, unpublished research.

  16. 16

    Z.G. Xiao, G.A. Rozgonyi, C.A. Canovai, and C.M. Osburn, in Evolution of Thin Film and Surface Microstructure, edited by C V. Thompson, J. Y. Tsao, and D. J. Srolovitz (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 202, Pittsburgh, PA, 1991), p. 101.

  17. 17

    Z. G. Xiao, H. Jiang, J. Honeycutt, G. A. Rozgonyi, C. M. Osburn, and G. McGuire, in Advanced Metallizations in Microelectronics, edited by A. Katz, S. P. Murarka, and A. Appelbaum (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 181, Pittsburgh, PA, 1990), p. 167.

  18. 18

    S.P. Murarka, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 775 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    J.C Hensel, R.T. Tung, J.M. Poate, and F.C. Unterwald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 913 (1984).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    N.A. Fedorovich, Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 1093 (1980).

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    R.J. Schreutelkamp, K. Maex, W.A. Coppye, P. Vandenabeele, and C Vermeiren, unpublished data.

  22. 22

    R. J. Schreutelkamp, P. Vandenabeele, B. Deweerdt, W. Coppye, C. Vermeiren, A. Lauwers, and K. Maex, in Advanced Metallization and Processing for Semiconductor Devices and Circuits II, edited by A. Katz, S. P. Murarka, Y. I. Nissim, and J. M. E. Harper (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 260, Pittsburgh, PA, 1992), p. 145; Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2296 (1992).

  23. 23

    L.R. Doolittle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B9, 344 (1985).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    K.N. Tu and J.W. Mayer, in Thin FilmsInterdiffusion and Reactions, edited by J. M. Poate, K. N. Tu, and J. W. Mayer (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1978), Chap. 10, pp. 359–405.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    S. A. Audet, A. E. White, K. T. Short, Y-F. Hsieh, F. M. Ross, and C.S. Rafferty, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2311 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    F.M. d’Heurle and C.S. Petersson, Thin Solid Films 128, 283 (1985).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    A. Appelbaum, R. V. Knoell, and S. P. Murarka, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 1880 (1985).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    J.B. Lasky, J.S. Nakos, O.J. Cain, and P.J. Geiss, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev. 38, 262 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    K. Maex and R. J. Schreutelkamp, in Advanced Metallization and Processing for Semiconductor Devices and Circuits II, edited by A. Katz, S. P. Murarka, Y. I. Nissim, and J. M. E. Harper (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 260, Pittsburgh, PA, 1992), p. 133.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. J. Schreutelkamp.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Schreutelkamp, R.J., Coppye, W., De Bosscher, W. et al. Formation of ultrathin CoSi2 films using a two-step limited reaction process. Journal of Materials Research 8, 3111–3121 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1993.3111

Download citation