Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers

Abstract

Tungsten/silicon multilayers with tungsten layers of a thickness of 1–2 nm were prepared by means of electron beam deposition. Their structure and thermal stability under rapid thermal annealing were investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction techniques and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The crystallization behavior was found to depend on the interdiffusion and mixing at the tungsten/silicon interfaces during deposition as well as during annealing. The as-deposited tungsten/silicon multilayers were amorphous and remained stable after annealing at 250 °C/40 s. Interdiffusion and crystallization occurred after annealing all samples from 500 °C/40 s up to 1000 °C/20 s. By performing the same heat treatment in the tungsten/silicon multilayers, the formation of body-centered cubic W was observed with a layer thickness ratio δWsi = 1, whereas tetragonal WSi2 was detected in tungsten/silicon multilayers with a layer thickness ratio of δwsi ∼0.25. This dependence of the crystallization products on the layer thickness ratio δwsi originates from the different phenomena of interdiffusion and mixing at the tungsten/silicon interfaces. The possible formation of bcc tungsten as a first stage of crystallization of tungsten-silicon amorphous phase, rich in tungsten, is discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1

    P. Chakraborty, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B5, 343 (1991).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccare, G. Rolland, and F. Laugier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999 (1989).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    S. P. Murarka, Suicides for VLSI Application (Academic Press, New York, 1983).

  4. 4

    S. Luby, E. Majkova, P. Lobotka, I. Vavra, M. Jergel, R. Senderak, and J. Grno, Physica C 197, 35 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    E. Majkova, P. Lobotka, I. Vavra, S. Luby, M. Jergel, S. Benacka, R. Senderak, B. George, and M. Vaezzadeh, Appl. Surf. Sci. 65/66, 752 (1993).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Z. Jiang, X. Hiang, W. Liu, and Z. Wu, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196 (1989).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tete, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3384 (1990).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    J.B Kortright, S. Joksch, and E. Ziegler, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 168 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    J. M. Molarius, S. Franssila, G. Drozdy, and J. Saarilahti, Appl. Surf. Sci. 53, 383 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    S. Enzo, A. Benedetti, G. Fagherazzi, and S. Polizzi, J. Appl. Cryst. 21, 536 (1988).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    A. Guinier, X-ray Diffraction (Freeman, San Francisco, CA, 1963).

  12. 12

    H. P. Klug and L. A. Alexander, X-ray Diffraction for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials (John Wiley, New York, 1974).

  13. 13

    G. S. Cargill III, Solid State Physics, edited by F. Seitz (Academic Press, New York, 1975), Vol. 30.

  14. 14

    L. Meyerheim, B. Lengeier, and H. E. Goebel, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2694 (1990).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    X.M. Jiang, D.C. Xian, and Z.Q. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2549 (1990).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    C. A. Lucas, T. D. Nguyen, and J. B. Kortright, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2100 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    C.J. Smithells, Metals Reference Book, 5th ed. (Butterworth, Washington, DC, 1976).

  18. 18

    Glassy Metals I and II, edited by H-J. Giintherodt and H. Beck (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981 and 1983).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Brunel.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Brunel, M., Enzo, S., Jergel, M. et al. Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers. Journal of Materials Research 8, 2600–2607 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1993.2600

Download citation