Preferred orientation of high performance carbon fibers


The preferred orientation of polyacrylnitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers, mesophase pitch-derived carbon fibers, and pitch precursor fibers was studied by using x-ray diffraction technique. The half width at half maximum (HWHM) intensity of the φ scan x-ray diffraction profiles of these fibers was a minimum at around 2θ = 26°. The result implies that a crystallite with a larger coherence length of crystallite size Lc(002) is better aligned along the fiber axis than that with a smaller Lc(002) in these fibers. Further, θ-2θ scan profiles depending on φ showed that a better aligned crystallite possesses a larger Lc(002) than a misaligned one. Lc(002) of a significantly misoriented crystallite remained constant at about 2 nm even after heat-treatment, though Lc(002) of a well-aligned crystallite was easily changed by heat-treatment for both PAN and pitch-based fibers. The pitch precursor fiber exhibited a clear peak at about 2θ = 7° in the θ-2θ profile and unusual ° scan profiles for 2θ around 7°, which were explained by assuming columnar structures formed by molecule stacking along the c-axis with periodic arrangements of the columns perpendicular to the c-axis. The periodic column stacking structure observed in the pitch precursor fiber was also detected in pitch-based carbon fibers heat-treated at lower temperatures.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    R. J. Price, Philos. Mag. 12, 564 (1965).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    P. R. Goggin and W. N. Reynolds, Philos. Mag. 16, 317 (1967).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    H. A. Goldberg, Final Report to U.S. Army Research Office, Contract No. DAAE29–81-C-0016 (unpublished).

  4. 4.

    M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, K. Sugihara, I. L. Spain, and H. A. Goldberg, Graphite Fibers and Filaments, edited by Manuel Cardona (Springer Series in Materials Science 5, 1988), p. 92 and p. 132.

  5. 5.

    M. G. Dobb, D. J. Johnson, and C. R. Park, J. Mater. Sci. 25, 829 (1990).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    M. Higuchi, M. Furuyama, and T. Tomioka, Preprint for the 18th Annual Meeting of Carbon Society of Japan, 84 (1991), (in Japanese).

  7. 7.

    H. W. Hawthorne and E. Teghtsoonian, J. Mater. Sci. 10, 41 (1975).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    S. Kumar, W. W. Adams, and T. E. Helminiak, J. Reinforced Plas. and Comp. 7, 108 (1988).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    K. Kubomura and N. Tsuji, The 36th SAMPE International Symposium/Exhibition, San Diego, CA, 1664 (1991).

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    G. E. Bacon, J. Appl. Chem. 6, 477 (1956).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    T. Hamada, M. Furuyama, T. Tomioka, and M. Endo, J. Mater. Res. 7, 1178 (1992).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J. D. Brooks and G. H. Taylor, Carbon 3, 185 (1965).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    I. Mochida, K. Maeda, and K. Takeshita, Carbon 16, 459 (1978).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    D. Auguie, M. Oberlin, A. Oberlin, and P. Hyvernat, Carbon 18, 337 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    S. Higuchi, R. Otsuka, and M. Shiraishi, J. Mater. Sci. 19, 279 (1984).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    A.M. Levelut, J. Phys. 40, L. 81 (1979).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    R. B. Mathur, O. P. Bahl, J. Mittal, and K. C. Nagpal, Carbon 29 (7), 1059 (1991).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    T. Hamada, T. Nishida, Y. Sajiki, M. Matsumoto, and M. Endo, J. Mater. Res. 2, 850 (1987).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    T. Hamada, M. Furuyama, Y. Sajiki, T. Tomioka, and M. Endo, J. Mater. Res. 5, 570 (1990).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    H. Tillgner and W. Ruland, Extended Abstracts of the 18th Biennial Conference on Carbon, Worcester, MA (American Carbon Society, University Park, PA, 1987), p. 28.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    T. Hamada, M. Furuyama, Y. Sajiki, T. Tomioka, and M. Endo, J. Mater. Res. 5, 1271 (1990).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to T. Hamada.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hamada, T., Furuyama, M., Tomioka, T. et al. Preferred orientation of high performance carbon fibers. Journal of Materials Research 7, 2612–2620 (1992).

Download citation