Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica

, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 431–440 | Cite as

A remark on the GNSS differenced phase ambiguity parameters



In the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) carrier phase data processing, cycle slips are limiting factors and affect the quality of the estimators in general. When differencing phase observations, a problem in phase ambiguity parameterization may arise, namely linear relations between some of the parameters. These linear relations must be considered as additional constraints in the system of observation equations. Neglecting these constraints, results in poorer estimators. This becomes significant when ambiguity resolution is in demand. As a clue to detect the problem in GNSS processing, we focused on the equivalence of using undifferenced and differenced observation equations. With differenced observables this equivalence is preserved only if we add certain constraints, which formulate the linear relations between some of the ambiguity parameters, to the differenced observation equations. To show the necessity of the additional constraints, an example is made using real data of a permanent station from the network of the international GNSS service (IGS). The achieved results are notable to the GNSS software developers.


cycle slip equivalence theorem phase ambiguity phase observations 


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of GeodesyRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH)StockholmSweden

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