Antioxidant Activity and Contents of Total Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins According to Grain Colour in Several Varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

Abstract

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench contains various phenolic compounds such as anthocyanin. Eleven sorghum accessions were classified into five groups by grain colour and their antioxidant activities were measured as well as the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and anthocyanins in sorghum grains. The grain colour was related to TPC content, but not to monomelic anthocyanin content. Moreover, the overall patterns of antioxidant activity levels in 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay were similar to those of the TPC content. Correlations between TPC and anthocyanin contents were statistically significant and positive (P < 0.05). TPC content showed also a strong positive correlation to DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activities. The results provide the basic data for breeding of sorghum varieties containing large amounts of antioxidants.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Ainsworth, E.A., Gillespie, K.M. 2007. Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Nat. Protoc. 2:875–877.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Arulselvan, P., Fard, M.T., Tan, W.S., Gothai, S., Fakurazi, S., Norhaizan, M.E., Kumar, S.S. 2016. Role of antioxidants and natural products in inflammation. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2016:5276130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Atanasov, A.G., Waltenberger, B., Pferschy-Wenzig, E.M., Linder, T., Wawrosch, C., Uhrin, P., Temml, V., Wang, L., Schwaiger, S., Heiss, E.H. 2015. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: a review. Biotechnol. Adv. 33:1582–1614.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Awika, J.M., Rooney, L.W., Waniska, R.D. 2004a. Anthocyanins from black sorghum and their antioxidant properties. Food Chem. 90:293–301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Awika, J.M., Rooney, L.W., Waniska, R.D. 2004b. Properties of 3-deoxyanthocyanins from sorghum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:4388–4394.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Awika, J.M., Rooney, L.W., Wu, X., Prior, R.L., Cisneros-Zevallos, L. 2003. Screening methods to measure antioxidant activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and sorghum products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:6657–6662.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Casa, A.M., Pressoir, G., Brown, P.J., Mitchell, S.E., Rooney, W.L., Tuinstra, M.R., Franks, C.D., Kresovich, S. 2008. Community resources and strategies for association mapping in sorghum. Crop Sci. 48:30–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dias, D.A., Urban, S., Roessner, U. 2012. A historical overview of natural products in drug discovery. Metabolites 2:303–336.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Dube, A., Bharti, S., Laloraya, M.M. 1992. Inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis by cobaltous ions in the first internode of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. J. Exp. Bot. 43:1379–1382.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Dykes, L., Rooney, L.W., Waniska, R.D., Rooney, W.L. 2005. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of sorghum grains of varying genotypes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:6813–6818.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Dykes, L., Rooney, L.W. 2007. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Food. World 52:105–111.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Edgerton, M.D. 2009. Increasing crop productivity to meet global needs for feed, food, and fuel. Plant Physiol. 149:7–13.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Flint-Garcia, S.A. 2013. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:8267–8276.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Gous, F. 1989. Tannins and phenols in black sorghum [dissertation]. College Station (TX): Texas A&M University. https://doi.org/elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=5875855.

  15. Henzell, R.G., Jordan, D.R. 2009. Grain sorghum. In: Carena, M.J. (ed.). Cereals (Vol. 3). Springer, New York (NY), pp. 183–197.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  16. Khoddami, A., Mohammadrezaei, M., Roberts, T.H. 2017. Effects of sorghum malting on colour, major classes of phenolics and individual anthocyanins. Molecules 22:1713.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Kimber, C.T., Dahlberg, J.A., Kresovich, S. 2013. The gene pool of Sorghum bicolor and its improvement. In: Paterson, A.H. (ed.). Genomics of the Saccharinae. Springer, New York (NY), pp. 23–41.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  18. Lee, J., Durst, R.W., Wrolstad, R.E. 2005. Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: collaborative study. J. AOAC Int. 88:1269–1278.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Njongmeta, N.L.A. 2009. Extractability profiling and antioxidant activity of flavonoids in sorghum grain and non-grain materials [dissertation]. College Station (TX): Texas A&M University. Available electronically from https://doi.org/hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2009-05-560.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Pandey, K.B., Rizvi, S.I. 2009. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2:270–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Pinilla, L.E. 2012. Utilization of sorghum in El Salvador: grain, flour and end-product quality [Master’s thesis]. College Station (TX): Texas A&M University. Available electronically from https://doi.org/hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-12-8906.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Pooja, V., Sunita, M. 2014. Antioxidants and disease prevention. IJASTR. 2:903–911.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Quideau, S., Deffieux, D., Douat-Casassus, C., Pouysegu, L. 2011. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50:586–621.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Ratnavathi, C.V., Patil, J.V. 2013. Sorghum utilization as food. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 4:1–8.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Saxena, M., Saxena, J., Nema, R., Singh, D., Gupta, A. 2013. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 1:168–182.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Sène, M., Doré, T., Gallet, C. 2001. Relationships between biomass and phenolic production in grain sorghum grown under different conditions. Agron. J. 93:49–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Stefoska-Needham, A., Beck, E.J., Johnson, S.K., Tapsell, L.C. 2015. Sorghum: an underutilized cereal whole grain with the potential to assist in the prevention of chronic disease. Food Rev. Int. 31:401–437.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Stephens, J.C., Miller, F.R., Rosenow, D.T. 1967. Conversion of alien sorghums to early combine genotypes. Crop Sci. 7:396.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Taylor, J., Duodu, K.G. 2015. Effects of processing sorghum and millets on their phenolic phytochemicals and the implications of this to the health-enhancing properties of sorghum and millet food and beverage products. J. Sci. Food Agric. 95:225–237.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Thaipong, K., Boonprakob, U., Crosby, K., Cisneros-Zevallos, L., Byrne, D.H. 2006. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J. Food Compos. Anal. 19:669–675.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Wrolstad, R.E. 1976. Color and pigment analyses in fruit products. Corvallis (Or): Agricultural Experiment Station. Oregon State University.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Zhang, Y.J., Gan, R.Y., Li, S., Zhou, Y., Li, A.N., Xu, D.P., Li, H.B. 2015. Antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Molecules 20:21138–21156.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Kim.

Additional information

Communicated by H. Grausgruber

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Choi, S.C., Kim, J.M., Lee, Y.G. et al. Antioxidant Activity and Contents of Total Phenolic Compounds and Anthocyanins According to Grain Colour in Several Varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 47, 228–238 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.47.2019.14

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sorghum bicolor
  • grain colour
  • colours of pericarp
  • total phenolic compounds
  • anthocyanin
  • apigeninidin
  • luteolinidin
  • DPPH
  • ABTS