Expression of Wheat Gibberellins 2-oxidase Gene Induced Dwarf or Semi-dwarf Phenotype in Rice

Abstract

Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones that play important roles in diverse aspects during plant growth and development. A series of GA synthesis and metabolism genes have been reported or proved to have essential functions in different plant species, while a small number of GA 2-oxidase genes have been cloned or reported in wheat. Previous studies have provided some important findings on the process of GA biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in its related pathways. These may facilitate understanding of the complicated process underlying GA synthesis and metabolism in wheat. In this study, GA 2-oxidase genes TaGA2ox1-1, TaGA2ox1-2, TaGA2ox1-3, TaGA2ox1-4, TaGA2ox1-5, and TaGA2ox1-6 were identified and further overexpressed in rice plants to investigate their functions in GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Results showed overexpression of GA 2-oxidase genes in rice disrupted the GA metabolic pathways and induced catalytic responses and regulated other GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway genes, which further leading to GA signaling disorders and diversity in phenotypic changes in rice plants.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Appleford, N.E., Wilkinson, M.D., Ma, Q., Evans, D.J., Stone, M.C., Pearce, S.P., Lenton, J.R. et al. 2007. Decreased shoot stature and grain alpha-amylase activity following ectopic expression of a gibberellin 2-oxidase gene in transgenic wheat. J. Exp. Bot. 58:3213–3226.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Binenbaum, J., Weinstain, R., Shani, E. et al. 2018. Gibberellin localization and transport in plants. Trends Plant Sci. 23:410–421.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Chen, J.J., Xie, J.H., Duan, Y.J., Hu, H.G., Hu, Y.L., Li, W.M. 2016. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling reveal tissue-specific expression and differentially-regulated genes involved in gibberellin metabolism between Williams banana and its dwarf mutant. BMC Plant Biol. 16:123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ford, B., Foo, E., Sharwood, R.E., Karafiatova, M., Vrána, J., MacMillan, C., Spielmeyer, W. et al. 2018. Rht18 Semi-dwarfism in wheat is due to increased expression of GA 2-oxidaseA9 and lower GA content. Plant Physiol. 177:168–180.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Hedden, P., Sponsel, V. 2015. A century of gibberellin research. J. Plant Growth Regul. 34:740–760.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Hiei, Y., Komari, T. 2008. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice using immature embryos or calli induced from mature seed. Nat. Protoc. 3:824–834.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Huang, Y., Yang, W., Pei, Z., Guo, X., Liu, D., Sun, J., Zhang, A. 2012. The genes for gibberellin biosynthesis in wheat. Funct. Integr. Genomics 12:199–206.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kaneko, M., Itoh, H., Inukai, Y., Sakamoto, T., Ueguchi-Tanaka, M., Ashikari, M., Matsuoka, M. 2003. Where do gibberellin biosynthesis and gibberellin signaling occur in rice plants? Plant J. 35:104–115.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Lo, S.F., Yang, S.Y., Chen, K.T., Hsing, Y.I., Zeevaart, J.A., Chen, L.J., Yu, S.M. 2008. A novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases control semidwarfism, tillering, and root development in rice. Plant Cell. 20:2603–2618.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Pearce, S., Huttly, A.K., Prosser, I.M., Li, Y.D., Vaughan, S.P., Gallova, B., Phillips, A.L. et al. 2015. Heterologous expression and transcript analysis of gibberellin biosynthetic genes of grasses reveals novel functionality in the GA3ox family. BMC Plant Biol. 15:130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Regnault, T., Davière, J.-M., Wild, M., Sakvarelidze-Achard, L., Heintz, D., Carrera Bergua, E., Achard, P. et al. 2015. The gibberellin precursor GA12 acts as a long-distance growth signal in Arabidopsis. Nat. Plants. 1:15073.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Sakamoto, T., Morinaka, Y., Ishiyama, K., Kobayashi, M., Itoh, H., Kayano, T., Tanaka, H. et al. 2003. Genetic manipulation of gibberellin metabolism in transgenic rice. Nat. Biotechnol. 21:909–913.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Saville, R.J., Gosman, N., Burt, C.J., Makepeace, J., Steed, A., Corbitt, M., Nicholson, P. et al. 2012. The ‘Green Revolution’ dwarfing genes play a role in disease resistance in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare. J. Exp. Bot. 63:1271–1283.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Schwechheimer, C. 2008. Understanding gibberellic acid signaling–are we there yet? Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 11:9–15.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Wu, Y., Wang, Y., Mi, X.F., Shan, J.X., Li, X.M., Xu, J.L., Lin, H.X. 2016. The QTL GNP1 encodes GA20ox1, which increases grain number and yield by increasing cytokinin activity in rice panicle meristems. PLoS Genet. 12:e1006386

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Yamaguchi, S. 2008. Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 59:225–251.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Zhang, Y., Ni, Z., Yao, Y., Nie, X., Sun, Q. 2007. Gibberellins and heterosis of plant height in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). BMC Genet. 8:1–10.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Y. F. Ding.

Additional information

Communicated by A. Pécsváradi

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tang, S., Li, L., Zhou, Q.Y. et al. Expression of Wheat Gibberellins 2-oxidase Gene Induced Dwarf or Semi-dwarf Phenotype in Rice. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 47, 239–249 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.46.2018.69

Download citation

Keywords

  • gibberellins
  • gene expression
  • plant growth
  • rice
  • wheat