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Community Ecology

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 18–30 | Cite as

Patterns of biodiversity in the northwestern Italian Alps: a multi-taxa approach

  • R. ViterbiEmail author
  • C. Cerrato
  • B. Bassano
  • R. Bionda
  • A. von Hardenberg
  • A. Provenzale
  • G. Bogliani
Article

Abstract

The current loss of biodiversity requires long-term monitoring of the distribution of living organisms, particularly in regions, such as mountains, which are highly sensitive to climatic and environmental changes. In 2007, three alpine parks in N-W Italy started a field program to determine the factors which influence animal biodiversity and identify the most appropriate methods for periodically repeatable monitoring. Twelve altitudinal transects (from montane to alpine belt) were chosen, each composed of 4–7 sampling units, for a total of 69 monitored plots. In each station, five taxonomic groups (carabids, butterflies, spiders, staphylinids, birds) were systematically sampled and topographic, environmental and micro-climatic variables were recorded. The aim was to assess the distribution of different taxa along altitudinal gradients and the relative influence of geographical, environmental and climatic factors. The data showed that species richness and community composition of invertebrates are mainly determined by altitude and microclimatic conditions, whereas birds are more sensitive to habitat structure. For invertebrates, the strong relationship with temperature suggests their potential sensitivity to climatic variations. The analysis of biodiversity patterns across vegetation belts indicated that the alpine belt hosts few species but a high percentage of endemic and vulnerable species, highlighting its importance for conservation purposes. This work offers a representative sample of the northwestern Italian Alps and it is a first step of a monitoring effort that will be repeated every five years to highlight the response of alpine biodiversity to climate and land-use changes.

Keywords

Animal diversity Altitudinal gradient Climate sensitivity Community composition Temperature 

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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2013

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Viterbi
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Cerrato
    • 2
  • B. Bassano
    • 1
  • R. Bionda
    • 3
  • A. von Hardenberg
    • 1
  • A. Provenzale
    • 2
  • G. Bogliani
    • 4
  1. 1.Alpine Wildlife Research CentreGran Paradiso National ParkTorinoItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and ClimateTorinoItaly
  3. 3.Alpe Veglia e Devero - Alta Valle Antrona Natural ParksVarzo (VB)Italy
  4. 4.University of PaviaDSTA Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesPaviaItaly

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